Before considering the issue on the merits, you should understand the terminology. The fact is that many articles give fundamentally incorrect definitions of a wet facade, which causes confusion among inexperienced developers. Amateurs call such insulation a wet facade, for the installation of which water-based glue is used. Since this material is "wet", then the facade, respectively, is also "wet". For persuasiveness they talk about the dew point (in this case, they say, it is taken out of the wall) and the information takes on a "scientific" look.
What is it really?
Wet facade. Technology
The wet facade got its name due to the technological process of its installation
According to the current building regulations, all buildings must meet the requirements for heat conservation. It is impossible to achieve this without the use of heaters. For example, even wooden walls in the middle zone of our country must have a thickness of at least 60 cm, only such parameters guarantee the required thermal conductivity.
Thermal resistance to heat transfer of walls
If the walls are made of bricks, then their thickness increases to 120 cm or more. Of course, no one installs such houses, and to improve the heat saving indicators, they use effective insulation materials, most often mineral wool or foam.
Foam plastic facade
Recommendations for the choice of insulation
Insulation can be done on both internal and external surfaces of the facade walls. Let's dwell on the outer surfaces, they are insulated in two ways.
External decorative finish is applied directly over the insulation, it can be ordinary plaster for subsequent painting, decorative plaster or thin facade slabs. The insulation is attached in the same way - with dowels and glue.
Dowel with a metal nail
The glue itself is never used, to increase the reliability of fixation, special dowels are always used. Moreover, if pressed mineral wool slabs are used as a heater. Someone unknowingly called unventilated facades wet, the term stuck and became widely used.
Although such structures have nothing to do with water, or liquid nails, or the dew point.
As for the dew point, in all cases, without exception, it is taken out of the premises. The only exception is that the walls of the house are so thin that the rooms are cooled to the dew point. Such cases occur in old panel Khrushchevs.
Thermal insulation of the room from the outside will ensure the correct location of the dew point
We deliberately took your time to clarify the terminology, only knowing this can you correctly understand process of facade insulation using various technologies.
What layers does the wet facade consist of?
Technically correct, such facades should be called a heat-insulating composite system for insulating facade walls with external plaster layers.
Foam or pressed mineral wool slabs are used as heaters, the thickness is selected taking into account the climatic zone and the initial characteristics of the thermal conductivity of the facade walls. But in most cases, you need at least ten centimeters. Pressed mineral wool is used very rarely and only of special types. The reason is insufficient indicators of physical strength, partial shrinkage during operation. What layers does the wet facade consist of?
It can be brick, wooden, foam blocks, monolithic concrete or OSB sheets. Requirement - the surface must be flat. Otherwise, air will circulate between the surface of the wall and the foam plates, because of this phenomenon, the effectiveness of insulation decreases significantly.
Fixed with glue and disc dowels.
Wet facade cake
Before proceeding with the description of the wet facade installation technology, we want to dwell in more detail on the requirements for facade plaster. The quality in this case is directly proportional to the number of years during which the following will remain in its original form:
So, it is best to opt for flexible facade plasters.
Silicone compounds are ideal, for example, the new generation "Bark beetle" plaster. Let's consider the main advantages of this facade coating.
A house with a facade made of silicone plaster
Due to the presence of silicone in the composition, "Bark beetle" is flexible and elastic. Such properties of the coating prevent the formation of microscopic cracks on dried plaster. This is an important quality, because after the completion of construction work, any building is subjected to:
All of the above circumstances lead to the formation of small and frequent cracks on ordinary plaster. An elastic silicone compound can protect your facade from this nuisance.
The texture of the silicone plaster "Bark beetle", grain 2 mm
Another unique feature of the "Bark beetle" plaster from the "Farbe" factory is one hundred percent resistance to moisture and full vapor permeability. For this, we can again thank the unusual composition of the mixture. The finished plaster adheres tightly to every unevenness of the wall to be coated, and creates a protection through which water is guaranteed not to be able to seep.
Long-term color retention. The composition of the plaster from "Farbe" contains silicone resins, which give the following effects:
If, as a result of mechanical impact, the plaster has been scratched or rubbed somewhere, you will not even notice it. The entire mass of plaster is tinted in color and no scratches or scuffs are visible on it.
Silicone plaster retains its color for a long time
Thanks to the "clean facade" technology, the "Bark beetle" facing plaster is self-cleaning. This is due to the following factors:
In other words, if you are too lazy to independently monitor the appearance of your home, and would like it to be "itself", the "Bark beetle" plaster from the "Farbe" factory is your option.
Record service life. The service life of the "Bark beetle" is, on average, five times that of similar products on the market today. If using ordinary plaster, you renew the facade coating once every 5 years, with the "Bark beetle" this should be done once every quarter of a century.
Tinting. According to the manufacturer's statements, the silicone plaster "Bark beetle" you are interested in is tinted in about 2,500 different shades.
This diversity is due to the use of computer tinting and pigments from the world's leading manufacturers.
Variations of shades of the silicone plaster "Bark Eater" Farbe
Low consumption. Dry plasters imply a consumption of material for cladding, equal to approximately 5 kilograms per 1 m².
However, the product of the "Farbe" plant, due to the quality and high density of the composition, suggests using no more than 3 kilograms for the same unit of area, which is enough cavity to form an ideal coating.
The production of the considered silicone plaster for facades is certified according to the international standard. By purchasing silicone plaster, you provide the walls of your own home with reliable protection.
Decorative plaster bark beetle
House wall before insulation
Upper part facade
Calculate the amount of building materials with a margin of about 10%, prepare the tools. We recommend using foam boards as insulation, this is the cheapest and most effective option. The disadvantage of foam is the complete impermeability of moisture, but you have to put up with this.
Moreover, brick or concrete surfaces hardly breathe anyway.
Scaffolding will be needed for finishing the facades, it is better to use metal ones. If not, do it yourself from lumber. Pay great attention to safety, install them on stable surfaces. Check the level position, if the building has more than two floors, then you need to tie the vertical posts to the facade walls with special metal hooks.
Important. When installing the scaffolds, set aside the gap between them and the wall, the size of the gap should ensure comfortable hand operation during plastering or painting of the insulation layer. Otherwise, the scaffolding will have to be dismantled and re-installed, and this is an extra waste of time and money.
Step 1. Check the surfaces of the facade walls, unevenness more than 1 cm must be cut down, all others can be smoothed with glue. Do not be afraid that the cost of work will increase. If we calculate the time for additional plastering of the walls, the cost of materials, then the use of glue as a leveling solution will be much more profitable.
Beat off the lower horizontal line with a special rope with blue, and make it in a strictly horizontal position. If you are afraid that the first row of foam plates will slide down, then you need to fix a flat wooden or metal rail along the line. Fasten it with dowels or nails, it all depends on the material of the front wall.
Drilling a hole for dowels to fix the starting profile
Fixing is done with dowels
Cut off excess with metal scissors
Practical advice. Dowel plugs must match the base, they are different for wood, foam block and brick walls, keep this in mind when buying materials. Dowels can be screwed into wood or driven into a prepared hole. The length of the dowel should be equal to the thickness of the foam and glue sheet plus approximately 60 mm for fixing in the wall.
Porous surfaces should be primed, use a deep penetration primer. Apply generously to maximize saturation of porous substrates.Spray cement laitance on smooth cement or brick facade walls. Such operations will increase the coefficient of adhesion of the adhesive to surfaces.
Measure the deviation from the horizontal of the corners of the house and check the plane of the walls. This can be done with a plumb line and a rope.
This data will make it possible to assess the condition of the wall. If the deviations exceed a centimeter, then they will have to be repaired.
Step 5. Prepare the adhesive mixture according to the manufacturer's instructions.
The amount depends on your productivity. While preparing the mixture, pour water into the container, and then pour the dry ingredients.
Practical advice. If the walls of the facade are covered with old paint, then do not rush to remove it, it is long and difficult. Check the adhesion to the substrate first. To do this, cut a grid of grooves in the paint about 1 * 1 cm in size, glue masking tape to the surface and tear it off.
If the paint remains on the wall - great, the facade insulation can be done along it. If not, you will have to remove it from the surface of the walls.
Step 6. Apply the adhesive to the foam surface. If the wall is flat (unevenness does not exceed 5 mm), use a comb.
But this happens very rarely. In most cases, the solution will have to be applied with a trowel or spatula using the beacon method. One sheet needs up to eight beacons up to two centimeters high around the perimeter and in the center, with a diameter of about 10 cm. Due to this height, the foam plates are easy to align. At the edges of the board, the adhesive should be applied at an angle to prevent it from getting into the seams.
Apply adhesive around the edges
Add mortar to the center of the sheet
After one or two rows, eliminate the possibility of natural convection of air between the insulation and the facade wall, otherwise natural draft will appear and the insulation will be ineffective. Not just bad, but ineffective, keep that in mind. To eliminate traction, the mortar on these plates must be continuous along one line, there must be no gap between the plates.
Step 7. Immediately after spreading, apply the board to the surface.
Press and level the foam with a long wooden trowel or rail, control the position with a level.
Important. Inexperienced builders can deviate vertically, it is difficult for them to control the position with a level. We recommend making a rope template for yourself. Stretch them at the desired distance from the wall and secure.
The ropes will need to be installed at a distance of about 2-3 meters. Such simple devices will allow you to constantly monitor the position of all foam sheets along the height of the facade wall.
Using a laser level to check the adhesion level of foam sheets
Bonding sheets of insulation
The difference in the height of the planes of two adjacent boards cannot exceed two millimeters. If deviations are found, then after the glue has cooled, the protrusions must be carefully cut off with a very sharp knife and the transition is invisible. If you get wide joints between the ends of the slabs - it's okay, they are then choked with polyurethane foam. It is recommended to start the second and subsequent rows from the inner corners and move to the outer corners, it is more difficult to adjust the inner ones.
Step 8. In order to increase the fire resistance of buildings, it is necessary to make fire-prevention lintels between each floor. This requirement of the new legislation is aimed at improving the safety and fire resistance of buildings. Fireproof cuts are made of pressed mineral wool of the same thickness as the foam plates. The width of the scattering is at least twenty centimeters.
Lintels are installed along the entire perimeter of buildings and at window and door openings.
Step 9. Finishing window and door openings. Remove the dimensions of the slopes, cut the slabs along them. Take your time, all joints should be as even as possible.
It is better to use mineral wool as insulation, but the choice is yours. If the finish is relatively bulky, use Styrofoam. Insulation must cover the window and door frame, thereby reducing heat losses and improving the appearance of the facade wall.
Important. In the place where the window sill will be installed, the foam must be cut at an angle to ensure an unobstructed flow of water.
One more thing. Slab seams should not be a continuation of the slopes. In these places, you need to use whole slabs and make appropriate cutouts in them to fit the window. This method eliminates the accidental ingress of water into the gap between the facade wall and the foam. The minimum permissible distance from the seam to the slopes is 15 cm.
No glue is applied to the part of the slab adjacent to the window block. In the future, the gap is foamed with construction foam.
Fill all cracks with polyurethane foam, after it cools down, carefully cut off the remains. Fill the voids to the full thickness of the boards with foam, it is recommended to moisten the surfaces before foaming.
Removing cured foam
Step 10. After the glue has completely hardened, increase the fixing strength with special dowels with large heads. They need to be installed at the junction of the corners and in the center of each sheet. We have already mentioned that no technology recommends installing insulation boards without dowels, no most expensive glue gives such a secure fixation as dowels.There should be at least four pieces for each square meter of the slab.
Fixing the board
Use at least 5 dowels for each foam sheet
This completes the warming process, you can proceed to further finishing.
A very important process, not only the appearance of the facade wall, but also the durability of the entire finish depends on the quality of its execution. To increase the adhesion strength and protect the foam sheets from mechanical damage, you need to use a plastic mesh with a mesh size of about 5 mm. Before starting work, check the wall surface with a long rule or a strip.
Checking the plane of the fixed boards
Before proceeding, coat the dowel heads with glue
Smooth out the mortar with a spatula, sand if necessary
First, the corners must be finished.
Perforated metal profiles are used to strengthen the corners. Cut out strips of mesh about 30-40 cm wide. Apply glue to the corners of buildings of the same width, sink the reinforcing mesh into it, align it. Install a metal profile in the corners and drown it in the solution again. Smooth the surface.
Above, the corners will be closed with a new mesh already during the finishing of the facade walls.
Reinforcement of corners of openings
Installing strips in the window opening
Fold back the mesh and apply adhesive with a spatula
Align the adhesive on the slopes
Install the angle
Apply and level glue
Place corners around all openings
Step 1. With a flat metal float or wide spatula, apply a layer of mortar approximately 2-3 mm thick on the boards, level it immediately. There is no need to try very hard, the main thing is that it adheres well to the surface of the foam.
It is easier to lay the fiberglass mesh from top to bottom, the overlap must be made at least ten centimeters.
Applying adhesive to the foam
Important. Never put the netting against a dry wall, and then cover it with glue, as only outright hack-workers do this. The fact is that this method of finishing significantly reduces the strength of adhesion of materials, in the future, cracks will appear on the plaster. Pay attention to ready-made houses, many of them have this drawback - the consequences of the work of unscrupulous craftsmen.
Second mesh sheet
Applying glue to the second mesh
Step 2. Carefully level the surface of the mesh, the fibers should be completely covered with adhesive.
Check the plane of the wall with a long strip and smooth out any irregularities. To do this, carefully place the flat rail against the wall and remove it immediately. The print of the trail will show the areas that need alignment.
Grinding the mesh
The surface should be as flat as possible
Step 3. If the facade is to be painted, then a second layer of plaster should be applied, thickness within 2-3 mm. The main condition is the maximum alignment of the walls.
The technology is the same, do not be discouraged if traces remain after the spatula, then they can be gently rubbed with an ordinary grater. If decorative plaster is chosen for the finishing, then it can be applied on the first layer. The same applies to the gluing of thin facade panels.
Priming for decorative plaster
Applying decorative plaster
If the basement is insulated, then here it is necessary to adhere to the recommended technologies to the maximum extent. The surface of the base must be plastered, before gluing the boards, soak it several times with a waterproofing solution. The fact is that concrete absorbs a lot of moisture, it will get on the glue.
And the foam eliminates the possibility of evaporation, water accumulates under it, during freezing it expands and the plates will fall off, they will only hold on to the dowels. If the basement is then lined with rather heavy finishing materials, then they deform the foam plates with their weight. At best, the surfaces will become uneven; at worst, you will have to remove materials and repeat the insulation of the house from the beginning.
Plinth finishing, scheme
In the absence of experience in performing such work, it is difficult to find out if the foam is stuck reliably. We recommend making a test gluing. Apply the solution around the perimeter and in the center, place the sheet against the facade wall and align its position. Remove the styrofoam immediately and look at the glue marks on the wall. They should be uniform over the entire area, and the total area should be at least 40% of the sheet size.
Such a simple test will make it possible in the future to focus on the amount and location of glue application. In addition, you will feel how hard you should press the foam sheet against the facade wall.
Samples tore off the wall, the result allows you to judge about the amount and quality of glue
Well-glued foam is difficult to tear off the wall
Always start the row installation from the corner and from a whole plate. If the whole slab does not fit at the opposite corner, then it must be cut to size and use the penultimate one, and the last must be whole.
In extreme cases, the area of adhesion of the foam should be twice the area of the part protruding beyond the corner of the house. Do not forget that the slab should protrude beyond the corner of the building by its thickness; in this place, the insulation from the two walls should overlap. It is better to make a ledge with a margin, the excess will then be cut off. The solution must not get on the protruding part of the plate. The next rows of foam on the previous ones are installed in gearing.
The tighter they fit, the more secure the fastening. In the outer corners, the load is greatest, and you cannot insure yourself with dowels, remember this and carefully perform all operations. Plates on the wall should be placed apart, it is forbidden to coincide with vertical joints on the wall.
Checkerboard layout of plates
Especially carefully check the position of the first row, it is he who sets the level for the entire wall. It is recommended to lay the next rows only after the glue has completely hardened on the first one and fixed with dowels.
Layout of dowels for fixing foam plates
Do not allow glue to get into the joints between the plates.
Why? Cement mixtures have high thermal conductivity and form cold bridges. They will become visible on the façade walls as wet streaks. There are cases when such flaws cannot be hidden even with decorative plaster. The stripes are unstable, depending on climatic conditions, they appear or disappear.
The main task of the reinforcing mesh is to protect the foam from mechanical damage.
Experienced builders know that it is impossible to clean the foam from dried high-quality glue without damaging the surface. This means that the role of the mesh in retaining the plaster is minimal. If the mass falls off, then repairs still cannot be avoided, the plaster will sag on the mesh. Hence the conclusion - reinforcement must be done on those sections of the facade wall that can be damaged by mechanical forces, as a rule, not higher than 1.5 m from the base.
Everything above is at your personal discretion.
Foam plates can be cut with a fine-toothed hacksaw. But this is not the best option.
A much smoother cut is obtained after cutting with a heated nichrome wire. It can be bought in specialized stores, the length of the wire depends on the diameter. Stretch the wire at a convenient location and plug into an outlet. Uneven cut edges after a hacksaw can be sanded with a special float.
How to cut Styrofoam
Foam Cutting Knife
Extruded polystyrene foam has very low adhesion to adhesives. Before use, be sure to clean it on both sides with a float until shallow grooves appear.
Do not use this material as the main thermal insulation, it can only be used for finishing the base / plinth. And then only in those cases when the finishing of these surfaces is done with heavy materials.
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