Historical background or Who invented the lightning rod? A lightning rod (or lightning rod) is a mechanism that is installed on structures and performs the function of protection against lightning strikes. Also known as "lightning rod" in the common people.
It is generally accepted that the lightning rod is an invention of Benjamin Franklin, which he made in 1752, but there is also evidence that similar structures existed before this date (for example, the high masts of ancient temples in Ancient Egypt, there were also structures and by the Temple of King Solomon in Jerusalem, the Tower of Nevyansk, Jacques Roma's kites). In Russia, the first lightning rods were created by M.V.
Lomonosov and G.V. Rikhman in 1753
In this article we will talk about what a lightning rod is and how it works, who invented a lightning rod and how to make a lightning rod for a country house with your own hands.
Lightning strikes are an extremely dangerous natural phenomenon, especially in a situation when structures are located in open areas, precisely because to ensure peace and safety your family, you need to install a lightning rod. Installing a lightning rod does not require a huge amount of time, but in the end, you will be sure that the buildings are reliably protected from various weather troubles.
To install a lightning rod in a private house you will need:
Planning should begin with determining the height of the structure. The top of the lightning rod must be located up to 12 meters above the ground.
It should be noted that structures designed to protect structures from lightning strikes protect buildings only in a limited area. The area around the structure itself can be considered protected.
Therefore, when building a lightning rod, it is necessary to take this into account and build them so that all objects located on the site fall under protection.
There are two types of structures:
Type A lightning conductors create protection by 99%, which makes them the most effective structures for lightning protection.
Type B structures are less efficient than type A structures and, as a result, protect the structure by only 95%.
Important! The safety zone created by the lightning rod will be within a radius of 1.5 times the mast height.
That is, at a height of 10 meters, the lightning rod will cover an area 30 meters in diameter. If you need to protect a larger site with buildings, then the construction of two or three masts, evenly spaced across the site, will help solve the problem of lightning. The lightning rod must be at a height of more than 2 meters from the roof surface in order to effectively perform the function of protecting the house from lightning.
The grounding loop must be located at a distance of up to 1 meter from the foundation of the building, which will be protected by the lightning rod, and in a few meters from the sidewalks and porch. The grounding place during a thunderstorm is dangerous, therefore it is necessary to position it so as not to endanger households and guests.
It would be best to find a place for it against the wall or fence that encloses the house. One of the options is to place a flower bed or other composition of boulders, stones, etc. around the grounding zone.
The most suitable materials for the components:
70 cm or a rod of 0.35 cm made of aluminum.
It is also necessary to determine and mark in advance the locations of all structural elements.
After marking, using a shovel, a hole in the shape of a triangle is created - each side of which must be at least 1200 mm, depth - 600 - 700 mm.
A trench is laid from the top of the triangle towards the wall of the house. At the end point, the end of the down conductor will come up.
At the ends of the vertical parts of the grounding elements, corners are cut off with a grinder, then with pointed ends they are driven into the ground to a depth of 2 meters with a heavy metal sledgehammer. When driving the pointed ends of the grounding into the ground, it is necessary to strike with a sledgehammer strictly vertically so as not to bend the structure.
Using a welding machine, pieces of the same material are welded, from which they form a metal triangle in the trenches.
There are two ways to install the air terminal:
The pantograph is placed on the roof and then vertically down on the wall and fixed to the roof and wall with semicircular plastic or metal clamps. The lower part of the current sink must be fixed to an earthing connection from the wall of the house.
For this, a hole is made in the grounding plate, into which a bolt with a washer, a nut and a locknut is installed. The cleaned (sharp) end of the down conductor is clamped with a washer, nut and bolt, together with a twisted pair wrapped around the bolt. Then the holes are buried.
The installed system must be checked with a multimeter. Perform a resistance measurement - the device should have a value no higher than 10 ohms.
If the readings of the device differ from the normative ones, check all the joints of the structure - there should be good electrical conductivity along the entire contour of the structure.
A properly installed lightning rod on the roof is able to protect the house and nearby buildings from lightning.
It is important to note that in the case of private houses, the owner decides on the lightning rod. There are a number of factors when placing buildings that, in principle, minimize the likelihood of a lightning strike in a house:
Thus, in some cases, there may not be an urgent need to install a lightning rod. The feasibility of the installation must be assessed depending on the above factors.
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