In home construction, as in construction projects in general, it is important to do everything right and avoid mistakes. The final result depends on the correctness of the calculations, the correct use of building materials, adherence to the technologies of insulation and cladding - whether you get a reliable, beautiful, cozy and comfortable home, or everything goes wrong.
Consider the main mistakes of frame construction in order to prevent their commission, especially if you decide to build a house with your own hands.
The main mistakes made by builders in building a house
The base of a frame house is usually made of wooden materials. Therefore, most often mistakes are made precisely during the selection and use of lumber.
There are two main errors:
Let's consider these two reasons in more detail
As for boards and other wooden materials of natural moisture, their use can really affect the quality and reliability of the house structure. This is due to the fact that, when dry, the wooden elements dry out and, therefore, change in size.
As a result, tight joints become not so tight, the spots are loosened, the timber can go with a screw and crack.
Thus, through slots appear in the structure of the house - cold bridges, and the level of vibration increases markedly. To avoid such troubles, it is best to use kiln-dried wood. If this is not possible, then the lumber should be purchased in advance and left to dry for at least one summer.
The next mistake is the use of materials that do not meet the requirements of GOST in terms of section.
In the system of standards of our country, the minimum section of a board used in frame construction is 150 * 40.
Frameworks built in violation of this requirement do not have a sufficient margin of safety and are simply dangerous for living.
In this case, it is important to use wooden building materials of the appropriate section not only in the frame structure, but also when installing the floor (logs)
An important point is the sheathing of the frame structure, the correct implementation of which ensures the stability of the house under lateral wind loads. In this case, the most correct is an integrated approach, when the frame sheathing is made with slab materials, and "jibs" are mounted in the upper and lower parts of the strapping.For a one-story frame building, OSB 9mm is suitable, if a building with 2 floors is planned - at least 12 mm.
We insulate the house correctly
First of all, it should be noted that in pursuit of cheaper construction, you can badly miscalculate.
Especially if you use cheap insulation, including those that are not suitable in terms of performance.
First of all, do not use roll materials to insulate vertical structures. In addition, the insulation used must be of sufficient density, especially in northern areas and cold regions of the country.
The most common today are the following types of insulation:
Thermal insulation with mineral wool insulation will be slightly cheaper compared to basalt insulation.
However, the service life of the first of these heaters is somewhat less. Although manufacturers indicate the destruction period of mineral wool in insulation equal to 50 years, this is until full resolution. In reality, such insulation begins to sag and significantly collapse after 20 use. For basalt wool, the real wear resistance period is 1.5-2 times longer - 30-40 years.
Thus, by paying a little more for a better quality insulation, you get a really longer service life of the insulation, which is very, very important when applied to a residential building.
Regarding the density of the insulation, we can say that basalt insulation is preferable for this parameter, its density is 35 kg / m3, while the mineral - 25 kg / m3.
From all that has been said, the conclusion is that you should not save on insulation. Having won in price once, in the future you will pay the heating bills that grow every year. This situation is unlikely to please you.
To build a house without mistakes, you should still study the technology, especially if the construction will be done by yourself.
In reality, there are only two well-developed technologies for constructing the frame:
When erecting the frame using the "platform" technology, the floors of each floor are assembled separately, and the walls are already installed on them ...
Balun technology involves the installation of racks for the entire house at once and at the entire height of the building.
The most convenient, fast and accurate method is construction using the "platform" technology. It is this method that is the main and most common in frame construction, including with your own hands.
Particular attention should be paid to structures. Corners, as well as window and doorways.
The corner of the frame should be "warm" and overlap all cold bridges along the struts.
Errors in the construction of a frame house, associated with non-compliance with frame construction technology, entail subsequent misunderstandings . For example, fastening the frame boards not on ordinary nails, which, subject to the technology, is the most correct, but using, for example, perforated corners and black self-tapping screws.
Not only is fastening on screws and corners more expensive, but in the end the structure does not have the necessary strength. Black self-tapping screws are intended, first of all, for fixing drywall sheets, and not in any way a frame made of timber.
Therefore, the only correct thing is to fix the frame racks and strapping using nails.
Errors in the construction of a wooden frame house technologies are also being made in the process of organizing insulation, namely, when choosing protective film coatings.
The accumulation of moisture inside the "pie" of the frame wall is a big problem. Only the choice and use of high-quality wind and vapor barrier films will allow to avoid its occurrence. Unfortunately, not all products on the Russian market meet the necessary requirements.
Protection against moisture and wind is especially important if mineral and basalt wool was used to insulate the frame house. Wadded insulation under the influence of vapors and moisture is destroyed very quickly, releasing phenol and formaldehyde into the surrounding rather dangerous environment.
The main rule, in addition to using a really high-quality film, is to install materials in such a way that their vapor permeability grows from the inside of the structure to the outside.
Ordinary polyethylene film has the best vapor barrier performance. Produced in various modifications of polyethylene, films must have technical characteristics for conductivity less than 5 g / m2 / 24 hours.
The windproof film has a cardinally a different function. On the one hand, it should allow steam to pass from the inside of the structure without any problems, and at the same time, it should retain moisture that comes in the form of water from the outside. And also important - it should not be blown out.
Ideal windscreens are:
55 mm H2O.
Using the right films is the key to protecting and securing your home.
The energy efficiency of a frame house will directly depend not only on the correct insulation of the building, but also on the installation of high-quality windows.
When choosing window blocks, you should pay attention not so much to the profile or the number of cameras, but to the glass unit itself. It is best if the glass is coated with I-glass, including outside.
If you want to get exactly a warm house, then the thickness of the glass unit should be at least 40 mm (ideally - 52). Of course, you will have to pay for high-quality panoramic windows an order of magnitude more, but these costs will pay off pretty soon, because high-quality glazing will allow you to save on heating your home.
It's better in a country house in total, use special doors and door frames with additional insulation and thermal break.
Errors in the design of a house are often associated with the lack of a well-thought-out ventilation scheme. The lack of high-quality ventilation in a frame house makes it look like a thermos.
The best option is to install a supply and exhaust ventilation system. Especially in houses with a large number of residents.
The minimum requirement is the organization of mini-ventilation valves on the windows (or slot ventilation mode) in combination with the mandatory organization of forced ventilation in the "wet" areas (bathrooms, kitchen, shower room).
Errors made during the construction of a house are often associated with the lack of project documentation, simply - the lack of a project for the future house.
Construction and savings on the construction of any house without a project will entail unpredictable results.
The construction of a frame without a project is unlikely to be a summer cottage. In the project of a frame house, all important points are thought out and indicated, including the number and spacing of the racks, the direction and number of lags in the platform ceilings, angles, rafter system, etc.
The presence of the project will help to calculate the required amount with greater accuracy material, clearly present the layout and functionality of rooms, provide for the location of ventilation, etc.
We have listed the most basic mistakes in frame construction.
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