The world around is ablaze with a huge number of color transitions and cold and warm tones. It has been proven that a person can perceive only 2% of the shades of what is available to the eyes of birds and insects. Previously, there was a system that asserted that white light can be decomposed into seven primary color bands.
Then, thanks to artists, designers and makeup artists, a table of cold and warm colors and shades appeared, because in drawing and coloring, the perception of shades is much more important than the main color.
Cold colors, just like warm ones, affect the functional systems of a person, causing color associations.
In our perception, there are 7 basic colors that are the foundation. However, the human eye is able to distinguish only three primary colors - yellow, red, blue and white as a complement. Thanks to their various combinations, you can achieve any color and shade.
Based on this, a color wheel of 12 primary colors was subsequently created, mixing which you can achieve amazing options. Such a circle bears the name of Johannes Itten, a Swiss scientist and artist.
Interestingly, there are no two people who perceive images and colors the same way. However, there are general principles. Colorists distinguish 3 groups:
Attention! This division is rather arbitrary and many argue about the objectivity of such a gradation, constantly putting forward new versions. It is more expedient to use the concept of free energy, but the point is that it is convenient to divide the shades of cold and warm tones into groups so that they can be combined based on the perception of a person.
A human being does not have additional senses and can only rely on his sensations of warmth and cold when classifying colors into cold and warm. Stylists, for example, are guided not only by the color temperature in work, but also by the shade, for example, hair. In a suitable color, they are able to give expressiveness to the face, hide flaws, and emphasize advantages. More preference is given to a cold image that creates charm, independence, and purposefulness.
There have been many studies, according to which, cold colors reduce blood circulation, and warm, on the contrary, increase.
If the interior was painted in blue and green, then the temperature felt down by 3 degrees, in contrast to red and orange. Markings on taps, thermometers in the form of blue and red are logical. Sky, ice, water - blue shades, which means cold. Sun, fire, sand - orange, warm.
To determine what color by temperature, you need to focus on the color wheel, which can be divided into 2 parts.
At the top - warm colors with a leading orange. At the bottom - cold. The coldest is blue. On the sides, neutral shades of green and magenta.
All colors can be warm or cool.
Exceptions are orange and blue. Warmth decreases as you approach a cool blue and vice versa.
If we talk about shades, then there are no precise definitions and distinctions regarding the boundaries of warm and cold shades. Here you have to focus only on your experience.
Undoubtedly, knowledge of the absolute and relative temperature is an important understanding of the transfer of space and volume on an image or a surface.
Separation and mixing of colors is mainly used, based on the psychological perception of a person and natural associations.
There are several rules:
It should be understood that the associative method does not bring 100% results. For some people, the combination of white and blue evokes the idea of ice and snow, for others it is blue around the sun.
For simplicity and clarity, let's take three important colors - yellow, green, red ..
To make yellow warmer, you need to add shades with lower energy values - red. It is difficult to control the temperature of red, it is warmer in contrast to yellow, and more complex in gradation.
Interestingly, honey yellow, the color of dandelion and sunflower, is considered warmer, in contrast to the standard yellow.
To obtain cool yellow tones, mix green or blue.
Purple, blue, gray are added to red for coldness.
Green is much easier to work with because it is made by mixing yellow and cyan. Depending on the number of color components, you can play with tones.Green depends on saturation, the higher it is, the warmer the shade turns out.
Time affects color temperature.
For example, the time of day with the rising sun, which warms the sky and turns it into a blazing picture with orange, red, pink colors of one perception. And already at night there is a feeling of coolness under the influence of moonlight with muted colors and a bluish tint.
It has been noticed that before the cold weather, in autumn, the colors flare up again with fiery colors, so that other shades come to replace them - blue and blue in the form of snow, ice, cold sky.
During the Renaissance, the theory of aerial perspective was developed, also based on the psychological and emotional perception of warm and cold colors. An object painted in a cold color feels more distant than one that is yellow, orange.
If you look at the photo of the table with the influence on the primary, secondary colors and their mixing, it becomes clear how the color properties change, which is perfectly shown in the work Titian Vecellio "Bacchus and Ariadne" .
The artist divided the entire color space into 2 fields, corresponding to Itten's color wheel, which appeared only 4.5 centuries later. In the painting, cold and warm hues are used to create the great space of the painting.
However, such "warmth" is not measured and not evaluated absolutely.
Everything is relative. In painting, it is almost impossible to understand where is warm and where is cold, if we take into account the combination of small strokes connecting neighboring colors.
Mastery is the ability to see and display the millions of shades contained in every element of our world. The ability to see warm notes in cold colors and vice versa is very much appreciated, and gives a completely different expressiveness to the picture. It is important not only to know, but also to be able to simulate the volume of color.
There is a law that the shadow, for example, must be cold.
In the course of the work of artists, the feeling of warmth and coolness plays a role. An experienced craftsman can use less saturated tones, which are closer to achromatic white or gray, to increase the temperature in a certain area. Of course, the purest and most intense colors are the iciest ones. But, this is a matter of pure psychology.
We accept cold everything that looks correct, concise, strict, symmetrical. Always unusual things, lack of agreement, incompleteness gave great sincerity and warmth. This manifests itself not only in painting, but also in design, architecture, printing, etc.
It is important to choose the right color of the facade, focusing on the color of the roof, window frame, stairs, doors, garage doors, fence, drainpipe and other elements.
When choosing a color scheme, there are three approaches:
When choosing your approach, you should pay attention to the architectural style of the building:
If you focus on the roof, then the recommendations are as follows :
The universal colors include white, black, gray.
Color in construction and in the interior is not in the last place. The perception of the interior and elements depends on its compatibility. When choosing the color of the wallpaper, it is recommended to focus on the color of the furniture, floor, ceiling. Decor elements can add integrity to the picture.
Even at the stage of choosing building materials, you should think about combining them with additional elements.
For example, wood looks great with modern plastic, brick, natural stone. But, different types of plastic cannot be combined with each other, despite their uniform structure.
The harmony of colors and shades plays an important role, regardless of the size of the room. The choice of color will affect the comfort and coziness of living. Thanks to the rich color scheme, it is possible to fill the room with beauty, make it sophisticated and unusual.
A harmonious interior can be achieved by combining elements - furniture, floor, wallpaper, ceiling and others, taking into account the whole color orientation. Choosing warm shades creates a soothing, relaxing and joyful atmosphere. Cold ones are preferable to loners - dreamers, dreamers.
Green in the interior is usually referred to as cold, if it is not dominant. More often it is used in its pure form in children's rooms, in the kitchen, loggias and acts relaxing, not stressing.
It soothes, disposes to fruitful sleep, stimulates brain activity.
High-energy colors in combination with base colors give different color solutions and temperature of perception. Relying on energy in working with the background of a drawing, composition, you can achieve the desired perception on a person. Based on this in painting, the paintings were illuminated with blue light to convey the higher energy of the foreground.
The historical experience of the masters shows how important the aspect of color perception is in different areas.
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