what is it for, how is it done + Video

what is it for, how is it done + Video Conducting agrochemical analysis of soil - features, method

Agrochemical analysis of soil is called an event aimed at determining the degree of the amount of basic elements in the soil - minerals, as well as to determine the composition of the soil (mechanical), the indicator of the hydrogen content and the degree of saturation with organic substances, that is, such elements that will help determine its fertility and will help to make a great contribution to obtaining quantitative and qualitative harvest.

Speaking of soil analyzes, first of all, we mean monitoring the content of various components on agricultural land and lands used for growing crops, namely garden plots, farm lands, summer cottages, and so on. Soil studies are carried out on pre-taken samples. Further, according to the current regulatory enactments in the field of soil analysis and sampling methods, samples are sometimes taken according to the "envelope" or "grid" method.

General information

Depending on the area of ​​the area used and the type of analysis, the sizes of the pledges will vary.

To control agricultural lands and their condition, for every 1/2 to 20 hectares of the territory, at least one test site is laid, the size of which cannot be less than 10 * 10 m.

In addition:

  • Coverage of the same type in the field implies the use of sampling on sites of 1-5 hectares to determine the content of chemicals, properties of the earth and its structure.
  • Heterogeneous cover in the field involves the use of sampling at sites of 1 / 2-1 ha in order to determine the level of chemical substances, properties of the earth and its structure, as well as sampling for a test site of 0.1 ha to be able to identify pathogens in the soil.

The sampling scheme looks like this - taking into account all the recommendations described above, a test site should be laid on the territory.

After that, along the diagonal, which runs from one corner of the site to the second, point samples of the topsoil should be taken, and the sample weight should be at least 0.2 kg. The split samples taken should be mixed together to obtain a pooled sample. To create a combined sample, mix at least 5 incremental samples from the same site. It turns out that the mass of one total sample should be at least 1 kg.

Indicators for determining the state of the soil

For the analysis of agrochemical indicators of the soil, 6 main indicators were taken as a basis:

  1. what is it for, how is it done + Video pH-acidity of the soil - this property of the soil, which is due to the presence of hydrogen ions and exchangeable hydrogen ions in it as well as aluminum in the absorbing complex.
  2. Organic matter - is a complex of all substances of organic origin, which are in the form of humus and residues of plants and animals, that is, the most important part of the soil, which is a complex chemical combination of organic substances and biogenic origin, as well as characterizing the potential of soil fertility.
  3. Granulometric composition - the structure of the soil of a mechanical type, which determines only the relative content of all kinds of particles, regardless of the mineral and chemical composition.
  4. Acidity (hydrolytic) - is an indicator of the acidity of the soil, which appears when exposed to hydrolytic alkaline salt. The determination of this indicator is quite important for solving practical problems that are associated with the use of fertilizers, liming, phosphorization and other methods of the agrochemical type.

  5. The sum of absorbed bases - is an indicator of the degree of saturation of soils with bases, which makes it clear what proportion of the total amount of substances retained in the soil falls on absorbed bases.
  6. Nitrates - the amount of nitric acid salts. Such substances are quite dangerous for human health and perfectly accumulate in agricultural products due to the fact that the soil is oversaturated with nitrogen fertilizers.

Independent analysis of fertility

Fertile and healthy soil on the land plot is a guarantee of good growth and a rich harvest of plants. Everyone knows that the land requires timely and regular care - both novice gardeners and summer residents with extensive experience.

In order to avoid mistakes and correctly calculate the required amount of fertilizers, soil studies should be carried out every season. As a rule, soil fertility analysis is independently carried out in early spring, but it is also possible in late autumn so that the land can rest and gain strength before the new planting season begins.

what is it for, how is it done + Video The analysis of the soil includes a test for fertility, mechanical and mineral composition, acidity. It is very important that you are able to select the right plants that prefer different soil formulations, as well as to determine the quantity and quality of the fertilizers used, which are used to improve the soil characteristics. Yes, as we already mentioned, the most accurate and advanced analysis of samples from the site in agrochemical laboratories.

But now you will learn exactly how to enrich and improve the structural composition of the soil yourself.

Since such services are far from free, most summer residents choose to independently determine the fertility of the soil in their own summer cottage. The easiest way to determine the mechanical composition of the soil and its type. To do this, you should take a sample from the top layer of soil (5 tablespoons), and then place it in a jar from a stele and fill it with water. Next, stir the mixture thoroughly and you can start exploring:

  • If sand precipitated quickly, then you have a sandy soil.

  • A little later, clay soil precipitates, and it remains in the water in the form of lime.
  • Diluted with water, humus earth will give the water a dark brown tint and will float in the water column and will not settle.

No less important criterion is the level of soil acidity. Before you start to apply various fertilizers to the soil to get a good harvest, you should determine the pH factor, since rash actions sometimes lead to unpredictable results.

In specialty stores there are special kits that help to determine the acidity of the soil at home, which of course will not replace the agrochemical analysis of the soil, but you will have a general idea.

The chemical reagent cone has room for a soil sample to be placed there. Next, shake it, and by the color of the solution that you get, determine the acid-base composition (it should be determined with the proposed table that comes with the kit).

Since the chemical composition is not a constant indicator for different places of the summer cottage site, and can change from season to season (much will depend on the crops grown and the method of fertilization), it will be more expedient to use several samples. The presence of a sufficient number of worms in it will indicate a good biological composition and fertility of the soil. The more natural indicators in the soil, the higher its fertility.

An observant owner can judge the condition of the soil even by the plants themselves that grow in the country:

  • For example, if your the site has a daisy, white clover and odorless chamomile, then you have poor soil, which urgently needs a complex of fertilizers. To improve the indicators of depleted soil, it will be useful to grow green manure crops on them, and then embed them in the soil.
  • Horsetail, creeping buttercup and coltsfoot prefer to grow on wet soil, so if you find these plants in your area, you should thoroughly loosen the soil, and then mix it with sand, peat and add compost.
  • If there is an excess of nitrogen on your soil, then be sure to find thickets of nettles on the site, as well as field mustard, minartium or cinnamon. To eliminate excess nitrogen from the ground, use sunflower, which adores a large amount of organic matter and nutrients.

Both a lack and an excess of fertilizers in the soil are equally harmful to the plants that grow in your summer cottage. When conducting a study of the soil and its chemical composition at least once a year, you can make your task easier and give the earth only everything you need.

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