There is a universal option for erecting a foundation - pile-tape. It is many times better than other types. In addition, it will not be difficult to complete it yourself. In terms of structure, such a foundation is a structure of piles immersed in the ground below the freezing point, and a concrete grillage installed on them.
In appearance, the foundation tape looks normal.
The pile-strip foundation is a universal option used in the construction of massive buildings with brick walls, blocks with a basement premises or basement. This is a kind of monolithic foundation. At the same time, the costs are offset by the lower cost per square meter of real estate.
Construction provides strength. It was first used in Finland, since the houses there are mainly built of wood, and they are quite light.
Strip and pile foundations are considered the best. Tape - durable and reliable, pile - easy to manufacture with minimal effort and cost. Pile-tape type, from the columnar-tape type - a combined structure, with a grillage located above the ground. Outwardly, the tape is no different, and the bottom is completely different. But it is based on a pile foundation.
The grillage is located on piles.
Among the pluses are:
With this type of foundation, there is no need to dig a large pit. Labor costs are reduced.
It is mainly used on uneven areas and slightly loose soils, that is, in those places where the soil begins to increase in volume after freezing. This property has indicators - if it is 0.1, then the mail freezes by 1 meter and increases in size by 1 cm.This process occurs in clayey rocks, since there is more water in them and the structure retains liquid in the surface layers.
For your reference! On the territory of Russia, more than 80% of the soil has varying degrees of heaving. According to statistics, in the middle zone of the Russian Federation, the pile depth is approximately 2 meters.
Minuses are that it is impossible to organize a full-fledged basement, cellar. Not suitable for massive structures, the floor in such a house will have to be insulated.
This type of foundation transmits the load of the building to the ground thanks to two components:
For greater fixing and strengthening, reinforcement is used.
Often such a foundation is practiced in the construction of cottages, private houses with semi-basements. Unlike the buried method, this foundation is much more economical and faster.
When building a brick cottage, which provides a basement, a technical underground, it is necessary to carry out earthworks and dig a pit. If there is no basement according to the project, then it is allowed to dig a trench under the load-bearing elements with a width of 0.
6 m. In this case, the condition for the convenience of working with piles, concrete, and laying reinforcement should be observed.
Outside, along the perimeter of the trench, drain pipes with a diameter of 11 cm are laid. The depth of the trench is about half a meter, plus / minus 10 cm.
Important! It is categorically impossible to start drains under the foundation.
When work is carried out on soft soils, which include peat, quicksand, sand, then the MZLF tapes are too unstable and shrinkage is possible. The piles go through the layers to the load bearing, and the load is applied to the rocks. If the construction is carried out in a complex geological environment, then the foundation of this type is an excellent option.
So, first of all, you need to clear the area and mark it. This is a crucial stage, since the markup is a guideline that must be adhered to.
In accordance with the drawing, the base plan must be transferred to the ground, observing all dimensions. You will need pegs, fishing line, hammer, tape measure, level. Then the load on the support is calculated. One can carry up to 1600 kg. A trench is pulled out under the foundation tape, the bottom and walls are tamped, sand is poured onto the bottom.
Made of a metal pipe with blades in the form of a screw. This is a kind of huge screw with a large diameter up to 133 mm and a length of at least 1200 mm.
Before making a pile field, it is necessary to carry out trial work to determine the depth of the layer with bearing functions. By screwing the piles in different places of the building, it is necessary to catch a sharply increased tightening torque.
The standard scheme for manufacturing a pile-strip foundation is as follows:
To achieve quality in determining the position and easy entry of piles, pre-installation work involves drilling a leader hole of a smaller diameter to a depth of half a meter.This greatly facilitates installation and allows you to give the pile a clear vertical position.
Some people use the domestic method of diving. In this case, a 2 kW drill is attached to the pile using a special gear wrench with a gear ratio of 1/60. During operation, control of the vertical value is required.
It is possible to understand that the bearing area has been found by increasing the torque. Then the piles are cut to 2/3 of the height of the foundation strip so that a bond with concrete can be made. Inside, the piles are drilled to insert rods for bundling with the grids of the armored belt.
This option is made right at the construction site, much cheaper than screw. This method is more preferable, as it allows you to perform a monolithic structure of more complex geometry.
In this case, the work is carried out in the following sequence:
Filling is carried out at choice - immediately, or together with MZLF. The second method will bring greater strength and longer service life.
Most of the private builders pour the tape into the ground, and the formwork is done above the ground level in the basement.
With such work, access to the side walls is lost. It is more expedient to carry out the installation along the entire height of the tape on both sides. Such formwork, of course, increases the volume of work, increases the consumption of lumber, but it definitely gives high performance properties. You can use a removable formwork made from ordinary boards. If the soil is unstable, then the formwork should be started in the trench.
With normal soil - along the edges, on top. The height is equal to the height of the basement of the building.
Installation is carried out as follows:
Waterproofing should extend beyond the walls of the trench along the entire height of the tape, creating a continuous layer.
When creating an armored belt, you need to keep in mind that the tape performs compressive, bending, rotating, stretching functions. Therefore, you need to make 2 belts - above and below.
Then the top card is stacked on them. The immersion of metal parts in concrete should be at least 15 mm.
The section of the longitudinal rods is up to 16 mm, the clamps are made of 8 mm reinforcement. Experts advise replacing cooking with knitting wire or polymer clamps. Removal of rust and dirt is imperative.
Armopoyas are connected with a wire with an overlap of 30 to 60 cm.
Concrete is diluted in a ratio of 1: 6. To fill the formwork with concrete, you need to adhere to the rules and regulations.
First, the piles are poured with concrete, then the entire tape.
Compaction must be carried out in order to exclude the formation of air. For this, deep vibrators or pieces of reinforcement are used.
To install the vibrator in the right place, it is necessary to wait for the bubbles to emerge, the formation of cement milk. The solution is pierced in several places.
When building in summer, the concrete must be protected from rain, and in winter from freezing. It is important to monitor the drying process, moisture content, avoiding drying out. To prevent dehydration, the concrete is covered with sand, sawdust, burlap on top and poured with a watering can.
When the weather is cold, a heating cable is placed inside the formwork until the very end of construction work.
Waterproofing can be carried out after 7 days, and the installation of a frame in 14 days, not earlier.
Concrete is a hygroscopic and heat-conducting material. Any part of the concrete structure that is in the ground or in contact with it corrodes, regardless of storm and flood runoff. Drainage will not save the situation, since it is completely useless as a top-level defense.
When wet, concrete cracks and collapses during freezing, therefore, immediately after construction, waterproofing is carried out.
It can be done:
It is recommended to buy rolls based on polyester and fiberglass impregnated with bitumen on both sides. It is important that the coating is not interrupted. For this, laying is done under the sole of the tape, glued, folded onto the upper edge.
Roofing material is the cheapest solution.
The foundation must be insulated. This is a very important step. Modern technologies will help to raise the temperature in the basement to plus, even in cold weather. Popular methods of thermal insulation are:
The work is carried out by gluing plates with a special glue, which, when dried, are strengthened with dowels;
Pile-strip foundations are an excellent way to build an economical and reliable foundation with a service life of more than 100 years.
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |06, Nov 2020