What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video

What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video There is a universal option for erecting a foundation - pile-tape. It is many times better than other types. In addition, it will not be difficult to complete it yourself. In terms of structure, such a foundation is a structure of piles immersed in the ground below the freezing point, and a concrete grillage installed on them.

In appearance, the foundation tape looks normal.

General information about the pile-strip foundation

The pile-strip foundation is a universal option used in the construction of massive buildings with brick walls, blocks with a basement premises or basement. This is a kind of monolithic foundation. At the same time, the costs are offset by the lower cost per square meter of real estate.

Construction provides strength. It was first used in Finland, since the houses there are mainly built of wood, and they are quite light.

Pros and cons of pile-strip foundations

Pros

Strip and pile foundations are considered the best. Tape - durable and reliable, pile - easy to manufacture with minimal effort and cost. Pile-tape type, from the columnar-tape type - a combined structure, with a grillage located above the ground. Outwardly, the tape is no different, and the bottom is completely different. But it is based on a pile foundation.

The grillage is located on piles.

Among the pluses are:

  1. What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video Low price. To make a strip foundation, you will need to spend 50% of all funds planned for the construction of the entire house. Pile-tape will be much cheaper, since there will be piles in the ground instead of a monolithic tape.
  2. Fast work.

    With this type of foundation, there is no need to dig a large pit. Labor costs are reduced.

  3. The possibility of erecting with your own hands, since special equipment is not needed at all.
  4. Installation on any soil.
  5. Resistance to heaving and soil movement.

    It is mainly used on uneven areas and slightly loose soils, that is, in those places where the soil begins to increase in volume after freezing. This property has indicators - if it is 0.1, then the mail freezes by 1 meter and increases in size by 1 cm.This process occurs in clayey rocks, since there is more water in them and the structure retains liquid in the surface layers.

  6. Long service life with the right technology.

For your reference! On the territory of Russia, more than 80% of the soil has varying degrees of heaving. According to statistics, in the middle zone of the Russian Federation, the pile depth is approximately 2 meters.

Minuses

Minuses are that it is impossible to organize a full-fledged basement, cellar. Not suitable for massive structures, the floor in such a house will have to be insulated.

Scope of use

This type of foundation transmits the load of the building to the ground thanks to two components:

  • - foundation tape , which is installed along the entire perimeter of the building element and load-bearing partitions;
  • - piles to resist soil mobility.

    For greater fixing and strengthening, reinforcement is used.

Often such a foundation is practiced in the construction of cottages, private houses with semi-basements. Unlike the buried method, this foundation is much more economical and faster.

How to fill the foundation yourself

When building a brick cottage, which provides a basement, a technical underground, it is necessary to carry out earthworks and dig a pit. If there is no basement according to the project, then it is allowed to dig a trench under the load-bearing elements with a width of 0.

6 m. In this case, the condition for the convenience of working with piles, concrete, and laying reinforcement should be observed.

Outside, along the perimeter of the trench, drain pipes with a diameter of 11 cm are laid. The depth of the trench is about half a meter, plus / minus 10 cm.

Important! It is categorically impossible to start drains under the foundation.

Field mounting

When work is carried out on soft soils, which include peat, quicksand, sand, then the MZLF tapes are too unstable and shrinkage is possible. The piles go through the layers to the load bearing, and the load is applied to the rocks. If the construction is carried out in a complex geological environment, then the foundation of this type is an excellent option.

So, first of all, you need to clear the area and mark it. This is a crucial stage, since the markup is a guideline that must be adhered to.

In accordance with the drawing, the base plan must be transferred to the ground, observing all dimensions. You will need pegs, fishing line, hammer, tape measure, level. Then the load on the support is calculated. One can carry up to 1600 kg. A trench is pulled out under the foundation tape, the bottom and walls are tamped, sand is poured onto the bottom.

Types of piles

Screw-shaped

Made of a metal pipe with blades in the form of a screw. This is a kind of huge screw with a large diameter up to 133 mm and a length of at least 1200 mm.

Before making a pile field, it is necessary to carry out trial work to determine the depth of the layer with bearing functions. By screwing the piles in different places of the building, it is necessary to catch a sharply increased tightening torque.

What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video The standard scheme for manufacturing a pile-strip foundation is as follows:

  • people rotate the pile with crowbars and levers;
  • the foreman necessarily monitors the verticality of the work;
  • it is necessary to take into account the freezing mark of the formation and focus on the fact that the bearing layer is below.

To achieve quality in determining the position and easy entry of piles, pre-installation work involves drilling a leader hole of a smaller diameter to a depth of half a meter.This greatly facilitates installation and allows you to give the pile a clear vertical position.

Some people use the domestic method of diving. In this case, a 2 kW drill is attached to the pile using a special gear wrench with a gear ratio of 1/60. During operation, control of the vertical value is required.

It is possible to understand that the bearing area has been found by increasing the torque. Then the piles are cut to 2/3 of the height of the foundation strip so that a bond with concrete can be made. Inside, the piles are drilled to insert rods for bundling with the grids of the armored belt.

Bored

This option is made right at the construction site, much cheaper than screw. This method is more preferable, as it allows you to perform a monolithic structure of more complex geometry.

In this case, the work is carried out in the following sequence:

  • preliminary work on driving the pile to determine the depth;
  • drilling earth holes to the level of the bearing layer, with a lower value, taking into account the regional index of soil freezing;
  • installation of formwork using polyethylene, cardboard, metal, asbestos-cement pipes, pieces of roofing material;
  • reinforcement with bars of 16 mm, in a bunch of jumpers in the form of a circle, square, triangle.

Filling is carried out at choice - immediately, or together with MZLF. The second method will bring greater strength and longer service life.

5 options for pile placement

  1. Single, when each pile has its own support.
  2. Belt, that is, the distance between the piles is evenly around the perimeter.

  3. Lane - implies drilling of piles in 2 or more rows. Suitable for large buildings.
  4. Shrub - used for increased loads and for heavy structures.
  5. Field, that is, piles are arranged in rows or staggered.

How the formwork is installed

Most of the private builders pour the tape into the ground, and the formwork is done above the ground level in the basement.

With such work, access to the side walls is lost. It is more expedient to carry out the installation along the entire height of the tape on both sides. Such formwork, of course, increases the volume of work, increases the consumption of lumber, but it definitely gives high performance properties. You can use a removable formwork made from ordinary boards. If the soil is unstable, then the formwork should be started in the trench.

With normal soil - along the edges, on top. The height is equal to the height of the basement of the building.

Installation is carried out as follows:

  1. What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video Drains in the form of corrugation or smooth pipes are laid in double geotextiles using slotted, perforated perforations. Crushed stone is filled up.
  2. A pillow is produced, which is a method of compacting every 10 cm of sand and gravel alternately twice.

  3. The screed is poured to waterproof the carpet tearing with gravel.
  4. The sole of the MZLF is waterproofed using Bikrost and another analogue with a fiberglass base.

Waterproofing should extend beyond the walls of the trench along the entire height of the tape, creating a continuous layer.

Reinforcement

When creating an armored belt, you need to keep in mind that the tape performs compressive, bending, rotating, stretching functions. Therefore, you need to make 2 belts - above and below.

  • What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video Reinforcement meshes are made or longitudinal bars are used. They are connected by horizontal elements every 30 cm in the corners and 60 cm in straight sections.
  • The bottom of the mesh is supported by 10x10 cm concrete bosses, 15 mm in height. It is important not to lay them on waterproofing, gravel, reinforcement.
  • To mount the top, tie the cable ties vertically to the bottom of the mesh.

    Then the top card is stacked on them. The immersion of metal parts in concrete should be at least 15 mm.

The section of the longitudinal rods is up to 16 mm, the clamps are made of 8 mm reinforcement. Experts advise replacing cooking with knitting wire or polymer clamps. Removal of rust and dirt is imperative.

Armopoyas are connected with a wire with an overlap of 30 to 60 cm.

Concreting

Concrete is diluted in a ratio of 1: 6. To fill the formwork with concrete, you need to adhere to the rules and regulations.

  1. What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video It is forbidden to drop concrete from a height of half a meter.
  2. Pouring should be done by reinstalling the mixer, and not using a shovel, as concrete properties are lost.

  3. The formwork is filled at a time with a maximum interval of 2 hours.
  4. In the case of filling in a few days, it is necessary to use vertical bridges or a fine mesh Rabitz.

First, the piles are poured with concrete, then the entire tape.

Compaction must be carried out in order to exclude the formation of air. For this, deep vibrators or pieces of reinforcement are used.

To install the vibrator in the right place, it is necessary to wait for the bubbles to emerge, the formation of cement milk. The solution is pierced in several places.

When building in summer, the concrete must be protected from rain, and in winter from freezing. It is important to monitor the drying process, moisture content, avoiding drying out. To prevent dehydration, the concrete is covered with sand, sawdust, burlap on top and poured with a watering can.

When the weather is cold, a heating cable is placed inside the formwork until the very end of construction work.

Waterproofing can be carried out after 7 days, and the installation of a frame in 14 days, not earlier.

Waterproofing

Concrete is a hygroscopic and heat-conducting material. Any part of the concrete structure that is in the ground or in contact with it corrodes, regardless of storm and flood runoff. Drainage will not save the situation, since it is completely useless as a top-level defense.

When wet, concrete cracks and collapses during freezing, therefore, immediately after construction, waterproofing is carried out.

It can be done:

  • What is its advantage, when can it be used and how to build it yourself + Video Primers - special compounds that create a chemical reaction with cement, changing its structure throughout its thickness. The option is very expensive.
  • By pasting with roll materials. Many layers are made using mastic.

    It is recommended to buy rolls based on polyester and fiberglass impregnated with bitumen on both sides. It is important that the coating is not interrupted. For this, laying is done under the sole of the tape, glued, folded onto the upper edge.

  • Bituminous and epoxy based paints.
  • By coating with mastic or impregnation.

Roofing material is the cheapest solution.

Insulation

The foundation must be insulated. This is a very important step. Modern technologies will help to raise the temperature in the basement to plus, even in cold weather. Popular methods of thermal insulation are:

  1. polystyrene - modified foam with resistance to mechanical stress and with good thermal insulation.

    The work is carried out by gluing plates with a special glue, which, when dried, are strengthened with dowels;

  2. polyurethane foam is a coating that is similar in action to polyurethane foam, but has higher thermal insulation characteristics. To apply it, a special installation is used.

Pile-strip foundations are an excellent way to build an economical and reliable foundation with a service life of more than 100 years.

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