According to environmentalists, up to 40% of heat and electricity generated in the northern hemisphere is spent on heating residential, industrial and other facilities. For this reason, high-quality insulation of buildings brings tangible benefits in terms of saving finances and comfort of living. One of the most popular heat insulators is polystyrene (expanded polystyrene, PPS).
Which foam is better for insulating a house from the outside
Which foam is better for insulating a house outside - let us examine this issue in detail.
In Europe, for more than half a century, PPPs have been widely used.
During this time, no material was found that surpassed the foam plastic in terms of environmental friendliness, efficiency and thermal insulation characteristics. Europeans use PPP everywhere: as a heat insulation material for buildings and utility lines, packaging material for food and any other goods.
In Russia and the CIS countries, there is a certain prejudice towards this material. It is based on information about the environmental friendliness and fire hazard of foam. The plausibility of this information can be checked with the help of documents that contain the results of tests and examinations carried out in relation to the teaching staff.
Eco- and fire safety of this material is confirmed by many official researchers, including:
The products of each foam producer must pass the certification stage. The presence of a corresponding conclusion confirms the suitability of this material for use in everyday life, construction and for other purposes.
Need to know: the most important information on the percentage of harmful substances and their list is on the back of the hygiene certificate, which is rarely paid attention to.
After reviewing the documentation, we can conclude that the opinion about the danger of foam plastic is greatly exaggerated and is based not on facts, but on myths and rumors. If there are doubts about the rationality of using this material, it is worth considering that it will not be inside, but outside the premises, since the technology of insulating the facade, and not living rooms, is being considered. Therefore, PPP can be safely chosen as the main heat insulator for the outer walls of the house.
Styrofoam, test results according to GOST 15588-86
Expanded polystyrene ( styrofoam) is the board material with the highest sales volume
The name "styrofoam" is used in everyday life as an abbreviation for expanded polystyrene.
This material is designated by the abbreviations PPP or ESP. The first name is in Russian, the second - in English.
In the information of manufacturers and sellers of this material, there is not a word about its shortcomings. Only advantages are listed. And this is understandable, since the goal of the manufacturer and the distributor is to sell the product, but the foam has been known to the consumer for more than half a century, and during this period a lot of information has accumulated about the practical application of PPP.
This information is not so widely known, but it is extremely important for the correct choice of material for facade insulation. There are application specificities and limitations to be aware of.
The list of advantages of foam plastic includes such characteristics as:
Comparison of heat insulating materials
Comparative characteristics of heat insulating materials
The fire safety of the foam is low, which is the main drawback of the material.
How PSB-S burns
Among the advantages This heat insulator also includes the statement that the PPS ignore rodents and do not eat its granules.
That's a moot point. You can find the facts "for" and "against".
The practice of using this material suggests that rodents do not eat PPS, but chew it with pleasure. Therefore, the only rational way out is to close the heat insulator as efficiently as possible, that is, to block access to it for rodents. It is a smart choice for a practical host.
Mice chewed on foam
Foam manufacturers do not provide information that it is extremely unstable to ultraviolet radiation, direct sunlight is especially harmful. The consumer is not informed that this type of radiation negatively affects the chemical stability of the PPS and that it begins to "age" intensively.
The fact is that the foam has a polymer structure, therefore, like any other polymer, it will gradually decompose. Ultraviolet light speeds up this process significantly.
Polyfoam does not like ultraviolet light
But this disadvantage of expanded polystyrene can be considered relative, since it is easy to eliminate the negative effects of UV: it is enough not to expose PPS to direct sun exposure.
That is, when installing the heat-insulating layer of the facade, the foam must be covered with a finishing material as soon as possible.
The statements of the PPS implementers that this material is a high-quality sound insulator are doubtful. The owners of frame houses who have chosen polystyrene as insulation, claim that it has extremely low noise absorption.
An example of soundproofing a ceiling using penoplex
If you think about it, this fact is quite understandable: PPP consists of more than 90% air, which is an excellent heat accumulator and an equally excellent conductor of sound. Therefore, you should not hope that the foam will help reduce the sound transmission of the walls of the house.
As the thickness of the foam blocks increases, the structure's ability to absorb noise increases
Low vapor permeability of expanded polystyrene in practice means that there will be an obstacle in the form of EPS sheets on the path of vapor movement from inside the house to the outside. The temperature outside is often colder than indoors. Therefore, the steam will inevitably condense, as a result of which drops of water will form at the junction of the insulation with the elements of the wall structure. This increases the risk of the adjacent materials getting wet.
When deciding what is better to sheathe the house outside, do not forget to take into account the vapor permeability of materials
There is only one way out: the correct calculation of the dew point and the required thickness insulation, removal of the dew point outside of it.
A sensible solution is a ventilated facade.
It should also be taken into account that the vapor transmission capacity of any heat insulators cannot be considered in isolation from the details of a particular design. It is necessary to take into account what the walls are built from, whether hydro and vapor barrier is made, how high the foundation is and other nuances.
Main characteristics of EPS
Technical characteristics of extruded polystyrene foam boards
There are only two classes of foam: press and non-press. From the names it is clear that these materials have a different production method.
The first is made using pressing equipment, the second - by sintering at high temperatures. But in this production line, press equipment is also used. However, the classification is what it is.
Suspension polystyrene foam without pressing
To which class the foam plastic belongs can be determined visually. Non-pressed is a complex of sufficiently firmly glued round and oval granules.
The structure of such a material is porous, the strength depends on the density.
Press expanded polystyrene
Press has the appearance of a rather smooth sheet fabric, the density of which is different and depends on the brand of the product. This material has excellent technical and operational characteristics.
Non-pressurized polystyrene means abbreviation PSB. Press - PS.
The product name may contain other letters, each of which indicates a specific feature of this product.
The numbers in the name of the PPP indicate its density.
The most inexpensive product with a high degree of fragility. It is used as a heat-insulating and packing material, it crumbles easily, has a low hygroscopicity.
It is traditionally used for insulating balconies and loggias, country houses, containers and utility blocks.
Polyfoam PSB S-15
Polyfoam of different brands
This brand of foam is often supplemented with the letter "F", so the material is recommended for facade insulation. Due to its higher density than PSB-15, it is used for the manufacture of decorative elements for landscape and interior.
Expanded polystyrene PSB-S-35
Universal material having a wide range of applications. It is used for insulation of engineering communications, heating and gas mains, production equipment, thermal insulation of roofs and attics.
Used in the production of multilayer panels (including reinforced concrete) as a heat-insulating pad.
Characteristics of PSB-S 50 foam
This material has the highest density of non-pressed foams. It is in demand as a heat and sound insulator for objects of any purpose. It is able to provide high-quality protection from the cold, therefore it is used in the construction of underground utilities, garages and parking lots, in road construction.
Characteristics of non-pressed foam grades.
|Compressive strength at 10% deformation (MPa)||0.04||0, 08||0.14||0.18|
|Density (kg / m3)||15.0|| 15. |
|25.1-35.0|| 35.1-50. |
|Thermal conductivity (W / mK)||0.1||0.43||0.38||0.38|
|Water absorption during the day in% of the total volume||4||3||2||2|
Strong and tough press (plate) foam is a closed-cell plastic.
It is a radio-transparent material. It has found wide application in all branches of industry and agriculture. The press method is used to produce PVC foams, which include polyvinyl chloride resin.
Stamps PS-1, PS-2, PS-3, PS-4.
They have a closed-cell structure, the degree of hygroscopicity is close to 0.
Maximum resistant to atmospheric influences. Self-extinguishing, oil and gas resistant.
High hardness foam PS-1-350
Used in radio electronics as a material that is unstable to electrical breakdown, as well as for the manufacture of containers and floats for aggressive liquids.
Pressless foams of various densities are in demand for insulating building facades. In order to buy truly high-quality material, you need to know how you can independently check the information of the manufacturer and seller.
Polyfoam with increased hardness PS-4-40
The following companies are among the largest Russian foam producers:
For facade insulation, PSB-S-25 foam is best suited. There are several reasons for this:
Polyfoam for facade insulation
The most important indicator of the quality of PPP is density. It depends on the production method and the characteristics of the foam granules.
During sintering, the expanded polystyrene granules swell, and when pressed, they stick to each other. The stronger the pressing, the tighter the granules adhere to each other. The degree of thermal conductivity and vapor transmission capacity of the product at the outlet directly depends on this.
With a low density of the PSP, its structure is relatively loose, since the distance between the granules is significant. These gaps are the reason for the good vapor transmission capacity of the material.
But the expanded polystyrene granules themselves, due to their higher density than the air between them, let steam pass much worse.
This leads to the accumulation of moisture inside the insulation, which is removed more slowly than necessary. As a result, the plaster applied to the foam will attract moisture and gradually collapse. The same can be said about other materials adjacent to the insulation, or located next to it. Therefore, it is so important to make sure that the foam purchased in the store is sufficiently high.
The high demand for foam plastic has led to the appearance on the market of a large number of large and small producers and distributors of PSB. They all understand that this material is chosen as insulation primarily due to its low price. This fact, coupled with high competition, forces manufacturers to win back their market segment by lowering prices, which cannot but affect the quality of products.
For this reason, the market situation is such that under the PSB-25 brand they sell products whose quality does not stand up to criticism. This also applies to foams of other popular brands.
It is important to know: for many years the production of foam not standardized by GOST to the extent necessary. Each PPP manufacturer develops its own technical specifications (TU) that regulate the technological process. This gives the owner of the enterprise freedom of action, and he has every right not to comply with previously adopted norms.
Foam production scheme
The need to reduce the price of the finished product forces the manufacturer to reduce the cost of the material. GOST according to PSB-25 allows the production of a product under this brand with a density of 15 to 25 kg / m 3 .
This has led to the fact that in stores of building materials under the PSB-25 brand they offer polystyrene, the density of which is significantly lower than 25 kg / m 3 . But, as mentioned above, this is not a consumer deception. This is authorized by the standards body.
How to determine the density of the foam
The density of the EPS is calculated as follows: Weigh 1 m 3 of this material. The resulting value is an indication of density.
That is, 1 m 3 PSB-25 should weigh 25 kg. In practice, this is extremely rare.
The most common situation is that foam plastic with a density of 16.1-16.5 kg / m 3 is sold under this brand.
You can check the density of the sample directly at the outlet where it is purchased.
As a rule, all building materials stores or market pavilions are equipped with equipment for weighing goods. It is necessary to take a sheet of foam of the required thickness and calculate its volume. To do this, multiply the length of the canvas by its width and height (thickness). Then you need to find out the weight of this sheet and divide the resulting value by the volume indicator.
Calculation example for a sheet 2 m long, 1 m wide, 2.5 cm thick:
Calculations can be done using a calculator, which is available in any mobile phone.
This approach will help you buy that insulation that will serve you flawlessly for many years.
Extruded Polystyrene Foam (EPS, XPS ) is another material that is ideal for facade insulation. EPS is a type of foam that has a significantly higher density than PSB-50. Consequently, the strength and performance characteristics of this material are also excellent.
Currently, three leading brands dominate the Russian market of EPSP sales:
Extruded expanded polystyrene XPS TECHNOPLEX
Insulation Ursa XPS
All these manufacturers offer products of almost the same quality. But there are some nuances. For example, Technoplex uses graphite as an improving additive. Therefore, EPS boards from this manufacturer are distinguished by a pale gray color.
Extruded polystyrene foam "Penoplex" is notable for its bright carrot shade.
The products of the Ursa company have a beige tint.
All XPS manufacturers work within the same quality standard, but sheet dimensions are different. The table will help to verify this.
|Sheet thickness (cm)||2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15||3, 4, 5, 10||3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10|
|Dimensions (length / width in cm)||120x60, 240/60||120x60, 118x58||125x60|
Extruded polystyrene foam is in all respects the best choice for facade insulation. But this material has a significantly higher price than foam.
Therefore, it is not so in demand by private developers. EPPS is mainly used by construction companies that build residential buildings and production facilities.
Characteristics of thermal insulation Penoplex
Extruded polystyrene foam
URSA XPS is the optimal building solution for a wide variety of tasks.
Extruded polystyrene foam
Styrofoam can be fixed on the wall of the house in two ways: adhesive and glueless. The use of the first installation option is justified if the bearing surface is flat and does not have significant flaws.
This situation is often encountered in new buildings. Therefore, if possible, use the technology of gluing PPP. It is much simpler and more convenient than the glueless installation method.
Thermal insulation of the facade, scheme
Step-by-step installation of foam
Step 1. Dedusting and strengthening of the base.
Performed by applying a deep penetration primer using a brush or roller.
Step 2. Marking and fixing the plinth profile.
Fastening the basement profile
Option for fastening the corners of the profile at 45 degrees with using a plate and self-tapping screws
The basement profile is fixed at the bottom of the walls along the entire perimeter of the building. It will act as a support for the foam plates.
Step 3. Adhesive preparation.
Use dry adhesive mixtures. Experts recommend buying reinforcing compounds from the same manufacturer at the same time. They (compositions) are applied to the mesh reinforced on top of the EPS, which is necessary if it is planned to plaster the facade or other type of finish, for the installation of which a cement-sand mortar is required.
The following adhesive mixtures can be used: Cerisit CT83, Kreisel 210, Master Termol, SOUDATHERM, Bitumast.
Kreisel 210 Adhesive for slabs of expanded polystyrene
Glue-foam for expanded polystyrene and foam "Soudal" Soudatherm
Step 4. Application of mortar to EPS boards.
Applying adhesive to the foam
Smoothing the adhesive with a spatula
The solution is applied in two ways: along the perimeter of the canvas and in its middle, at 5 points (in the corners and in the middle). The thickness of the layer depends on the type of adhesive.
On average, it is 0.5-1 cm.
Example of applying foam glue
Step 5 . Bonding boards.
A sheet of PPS is installed on the basement profile and pressed against the wall.
Hold in this position for a few seconds (they are guided by the manufacturer's instructions for the adhesive mixture). Excess glue is removed with a spatula.
The sheets are fixed with dowel-fungi.
Laying foam for insulation
Fix the foam plates with dowels
Drive a nail into the dowel
Seal the joints between the plates with a mounting foam
Step 6. Applying the adhesive and gluing the reinforcing mesh.
Reinforcing mesh for foam plaster. Photo
Fasten the mesh and cut off the excess
Step 7 . Application of a reinforcing solution to the mesh. Leveling the mortar.
Applying the finishing primer.
Glueless technology of facade insulation with foam plastic provides for fixing the PPS plates on dowel-nails with a wide head (umbrella).
The fungi should be approximately twice as long as the thickness of the foam
The technique is as follows:
Drill a hole a little deeper than the length of the fungus with a perforator, insert it and hammer in a plastic nail, so that the whole fungus is a little drowned in the foam
Installation of the dowel-umbrella for facade insulation
Otherwise, all stages of work on the installation of foam plastic are similar.
If a ventilated façade is being installed, plate reinforcement is not required. In this case, a frame of wooden bars or a metal profile is built on top of the insulation.
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
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Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020