Interior wall decoration is the final stage of wall processing. Internal work on the decoration of the walls begins when all the main construction activities have already been completed: we have come to the logical end of work on the roof and outer walls of the building, installation of building networks and communications has been carried out, interior partitions have been installed, etc.
Interior decoration is a rather important stage in the construction of a house, because not only the appearance and coziness of your home depends on it, but also the comfort of living, and most importantly, a healthy climate in the house.
Therefore, it is so important to comply with all the rules and technology for working with materials used for interior wall decoration, as well as to choose high-quality safe materials.
Interior wall decoration, of course, may be required not only for a newly built dwelling that has not yet been used for living.
The walls of the house, which has already served its owners for many years and is now in need of major repairs, often need interior decoration.
At this stage, the walls are cleaned of old finishing materials: tiles, wallpaper, plaster, etc.
If there are remnants of old fasteners in the walls, for example, screws, fragments of dowel-nails, etc., they must also be removed. The place where these fasteners were located is polished. If there are traces of rust on the walls, they should be cleaned by firing.
Further, the walls are degreased, for this it is better to use special chemical agents that contain alkali. After that, an antifungal agent and a layer of primer are applied to the surface of the walls.
The main purpose of starting finishing is to level the surface of the walls and prepare it for finishing and decoration. Today there are two main methods of starting interior wall decoration: "dry" and "wet".
For dry preparation, drywall, glass-magnesium sheets, or specialized factory panels for interior decoration (plastic, MDF or wood) are used.
"Wet" method consists in applying a layer of plaster or putty to the walls. This is a more laborious method, and also rather "dirty".
Let's consider each of these methods in detail and trimmed.
Plasterboard - very convenient material, quite often used for interior decoration. This is a convenient and inexpensive material that allows you to level even walls with significant defects or rooms with uneven corners.
This is a fairly clean way of treating walls, since, in accordance with the technology, a sheet of drywall is simply applied to the surface of the wall. There are two options for attaching this material.
At the first, drywall is fixed directly to the wall using dowels with a wide head or glue (this option is possible only if the wall surface is sufficiently flat).
In the second option, it is installed on the wall from metal or wooden rails, on which the finishing sheets are attached. The frame for drywall is installed crosswise, and the space between the wall and the sheet is laid with mineral wool or foam.
This option allows you to perform additional insulation of the room, however, with this leveling technology, the area of the room is somewhat reduced, because the walls are growing and increasing in thickness.
After completing the installation of the sheets, the joints of the sheets are glued with masking tape and puttyed. The litas themselves are also covered with a thin layer of putty.
A fairly popular method of interior decoration is the plastering of interior walls in a room. The application of plaster evens out the walls and after it dries, the surface is completely ready for the final finishing with decorative elements.
A significant disadvantage of this method is large labor and time costs. In case of significant irregularities, the plaster can be applied in a rather thick layer or even in several stages.
Today it can be found as dry mixes, which are diluted immediately before the start of finishing work, or ready-made liquid mixes diluted in an appropriate proportion.
Apply the plaster mixture with a spatula from the floor to the ceiling of the room, check the evenness of the surface using a building level.
In accordance with the purpose of the room, several types of plaster solutions are used:
When using a complex type of mortar, for example, gypsum is added to the plaster base. Gypsum will allow the coating to dry quickly. You can also add ingredients to the mortar that increase its thermal insulation properties or resistance to a humid environment.
Application of putty for leveling walls
Putty is a material that can be used only with slight surface irregularities of the walls. It will not be able to hide significant flaws of the wall, since, in accordance with the technology, it is applied in one thin layer.
After the initial finishing and leveling of the walls are completed, it is time for finishing the walls. Materials for decorating walls are selected, as a rule, depending on the purpose of the room. In addition, much attention is paid today not only to the appearance, but also to the safety of the materials used.
For each type of premises: residential (bedroom, nursery, etc.), non-residential (kitchen, hallway, bathroom, etc.
) and production, certain marking materials are used that are allowed for finishing this type of room.
Important! Finishing materials with E1 marking are suitable for residential premises, with E2 marking can be used only in non-residential areas of the house, and E3 - only for industrial premises.
For wall decoration in rooms with high humidity, such as a bathroom, kitchen, toilet, a practical and moisture resistant material such as ceramic tiles is best suited.
This material has many advantages. High aesthetic characteristics (variety of colors, colors, textures), durability and ease of care, resistance to dirt and long service life.
However, there are certain disadvantages, the main of which is the high price. In addition, it is quite difficult to properly lay ceramic tiles on your own; most likely, you will have to contact a professional with experience in such work.
When transporting this material, you need to be extremely careful, because uninstalled ceramic tiles are very fragile.
It should also be borne in mind that floor tiles differ in rigidity from that with which the walls and ceiling are laid.
How to choose a tile, see this video:
Plastic or MDF panels are suitable for finishing non-residential premises, since this material is far from environmentally friendly due to their composition, however, MDF furniture is already the norm in the apartment, but if you have an eco-friendly house, we do not recommend it.
But such a finish looks good in hallways or corridors.
Quite durable and easy to use, the panels, moreover, do not require additional processing of the walls. Therefore, they can be used even in rooms whose walls have not been aligned. The panels are fixed to the wooden planks fixed to the wall.
Plastic panels are cheaper, however, inferior to MDF finishes in terms of their environmental characteristics.
The most popular option used in interior wall decoration for a long time is wallpapering the walls. Wallpaper is the best fit for decorating living rooms in a house.
Today, there is a huge number of wallpapers of various textures and colors. There are wallpaper on paper, vinyl or non-woven backing, as well as fabric, etc.Paper wallpaper is the most environmentally friendly and cheapest option.
Fabric and cork wallpapers also have good safety indicators.
Wallpaper is rather short-lived. They tend to fade over time, and they can also be torn or scratched.
Glue the wallpaper on a flat surface of walls treated with a primer. Wallpaper with a complex pattern requires careful fitting.
For different types of wallpaper, different adhesives are used.
Decorative plaster - a very interesting type of decoration that allows you to decorate the room in an original and beautiful way. Allows, depending on the filler, to create different colors, shades and textures.
Varieties of decorative plaster, depending on filler
|Textured||Wood, mica, mineral or stone chips||Gives the treated surface volume|
|Structural||Natural stone||Effect of stone or tree bark|
|Venetian||Marble flour||Depth and transparency reminiscent of natural marble|
|Gypsum||Gypsum||Used to create bas-reliefs and relief patterns|
A significant disadvantage of this finish option is its high cost and high labor costs.
Sometimes for decorating walls in a room, including in a residential one, use paint.
This is an easy-to-use option for wall decoration, however, it requires a lot of work to level the base, since even the smallest irregularities and defects become noticeable when painting.
The paint is applied to dry primed surfaces using a roller.
Quite an economical and investor option, very cheap and easy to restore the previous look, just roll over again, and everything is like new.
For interior finishing a country house or cottage, you can use both all of the above options, and some original solutions.
For decorating the walls of a wooden house, imitation under a bar, lining or euvrovodka, etc.
is well suited. The use of natural wood is environmentally friendly, practical and very beautiful.
Surprisingly good looks in the decoration of a wooden house and options such as finishing with wane board, wood cuts or parquet board.
Obzolnaya board - a cut of the trunk with bark, obtained in production when forming a bar or boards. This material should be calcined in a special oven before being used for interior decoration.
This is done to eliminate possible parasitic beetles living under the bark.
When finishing with wood cuts, make sure that all the cut elements are of the same (or approximately the same) thickness. It is best to use a miter saw for shaping the cuts as it makes neat, sanded cuts.
Decorating with a parquet board is not such an economical option, but it looks just gorgeous.
In addition, traditional materials such as imitation of timber, wall paneling or eurofaboo, etc.
are well suited for decorating the walls of a wooden house. Wooden panels can also be used.
The use of natural wood is environmentally friendly, practical and very beautiful.
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