The most massive and efficient way to heat an apartment or private house is to use a heating system that runs on natural gas. But as usually happens in summer cottages, the gas main is simply absent.
Therefore, the only safe and environmentally friendly source of energy for heating remains - electricity.
Moreover, the reserves of natural minerals are limited, and over time, you will have to look for an alternative, that is, electricity.
Advantages and disadvantages
Today we will consider the main systems electric heating of a private house or apartment. Moreover, there are many ways of electric heating, which we will definitely consider.
Let's start, as always, with the advantages of :
The disadvantages include :
It should be clarified how much power is allocated to you at home. A three-phase mains system may be required.
The first two problems can be effectively solved by purchasing a generator. Costs increase accordingly.
Before proceeding to discussing the types of heating, it should be said that the heating system should be designed and calculated before building a house, so as not to engage in alterations later.
Pay particular attention to the wiring.
In order for the wiring not to heat up, you should adhere to the rule: 1 mm2 wire cross-section corresponds to strength current, equal to 8 A.
And most importantly, if the house or apartment was not intended for heating with electricity, then you will have to change the wiring or install an electric boiler and supply a separate input to it.
During the installation process, it is important to prepare in advance all the necessary tools for working with an electrician .
This is an innovative and high-tech way to heat houses and apartments.
One of the most effective but expensive methods.The principle is based on the radiation of long-wave infrared waves, which propagate freely in the air and, falling on an opaque surface, heat it up.
As a result, we do not heat the air in the room, but objects, which in turn transfer heat to the air. When using this type of heating, a uniform rapid heating of the room occurs.
At the same time, no losses occur, which gives high savings and efficiency.
Performed in suspended or mobile equipment.
Suspended equipment looks like lamps.
Mobile heaters allow you to direct heat when you need to where you need it.
Film radiant electric heaters
But recently film radiant electric heaters (PLEN) have been used.
It is based on heat-resistant plastic, on which emitters (foil plates) are applied. The emitters are connected with copper plates. The film is about 4 mm thick.
Form of production of PLENs
Produced in strips of different widths and lengths.
Can be mounted on the floor, ceiling, roof slopes, walls.
If desired, the film can be covered with finishing materials, without loss of efficiency. During operation, the film heats up to 40 -50 degrees Celsius.
The film is not afraid of moisture and dynamic loads. Easily dismantled and carried to another location. Ideal for houses that are visited periodically, as the room heats up quickly, the air is ionized and odors are removed.
To automate the process of electric heating, you can install thermostats.
In appearance they resemble heating radiators.
They are also installed vertically, the principle of operation is simple cold air enters from the bottom of the grilles, passes through the heating elements heats up and exits through the upper grates.
Heating elements do not dry out the air and create a steady upward flow.
The design includes a thermostat and an electronic unit that control the heating process, which makes the device economical.
This type of electric heating has the following advantages :
No exposed parts, bare wires. The external screen heats up to a temperature of 30-40 degrees Celsius. That allows you to use them in children's rooms.
There are also special convectors that are installed in the floor, in front of doors or panoramic windows. It should be noted that this type of heating is effective only in houses with high thermal insulation.
The principle is based on the fact that from a heated floor surface warm air flows are evenly distributed to the ceiling.
Both the main type of space heating and the auxiliary one can be used. Heating cables or heating mats can be used as a working element.
Cables are usually laid under a concrete screed, which in turn heats up and accumulates thermal energy.
Cables can be single-core or double-core. The principle of operation is simple, an electric current passes through the wire, as a result of which the conductor heats up.
Heating mats are easy and convenient to install. If the cable is placed directly in the concrete screed, the mats can be placed under the floor finish.
There is a variety of mats made in the form of rods, two conductors are placed in parallel.
Then they are connected with bars in the form of rods. The main feature is that if one element fails, the mat continues to function.
Subject to the installation technology and the use of high quality materials, this type of heating will last up to 80 years. The control is carried out by the thermostat unit, and the temperature sensor is installed in the floor.
This type of heating as the main type of heating is not efficient.
It is often used as an additional source of heat, usually to create comfortable living areas.
The principle of heating in an electric boiler consists in building an expanded system of pipelines and radiators according to the entire area of the country house.
Heat transfer fluid (water) circulates in the system.
In winter, you will have to drain the coolant. It is one of the most efficient heating options.
According to the heating method, all boilers are divided into :
So, electrode-action boilers are based on the work of an electrolyte (a liquid that conducts an electric current). Since the current in our network is variable with an oscillation frequency of 50 Hz. These fluctuations excite fluctuations in electrolyte tones, as a result of which we get a rapid heating of the entire volume of the electrolyte.
An electrode is used as an ion exciter, usually it looks like a graphite rod. And only water with a certain specific resistance value is used as an electrolyte.
The use of anti-freezing liquids is strictly prohibited!
To the pluses refer : high efficiency of about 98%. Fast heating. Depends on the frequency of the current in the network, and little depends on voltage drops. Boiler overheating is not possible; in the absence of electrolyte, the boiler simply turns off.
The disadvantages include : the electrode collapses over time and requires replacement, you can replace it yourself.
Electrode boilers always work at full capacity and nothing else, hence the problem of automation.A ground loop is required to install the device.
The electrolyte composition should be constantly maintained and the system cleaned every year.
The set with the boiler includes: control unit.
You will have to buy the expansion tank and pump yourself.
The heater is made of a metal conductor, which is packed in a waterproof case. The conductor is heated by passing an electric current.
Due to the fact that the heater is packed in a cover, the efficiency drops sharply to 80%. To ensure high-quality heating, several heating elements are used simultaneously. Modern boilers on heating elements - heaters, equipped with modern automation, programmed shutdown of heating elements in stages, to maintain the set indicators.
The main disadvantage of is the formation of scale on the heaters, which leads to their malfunction. Modern, you have to add special preparations to the heating system.
The principle of operation resembles that of an electric transformer.
The primary coil is fixed in the boiler body. The coil is sealed and does not come into contact with water.
An alternating electric current is passed through this coil.
The role of the secondary winding is played by a system of pipes through which fluid circulates. Since the secondary winding (pipe system) is located in the electromagnetic field of the primary coil, it induces a voltage there. And when we close the secondary circuit, a current begins to flow through it, as a result of which a fast and uniform heating occurs.
In such a system, there are practically no losses and the efficiency is 100%.
The approximate weight of such boilers is about 20 kg. , power is about 2-3 kW. This boiler can heat a room of about 30 sq. m.
Installation is simple, the device has threaded connections for tapping into the system and the control unit.
Such boilers are elements of a variety of induction boilers.
Electric power is converted to high-frequency because of this, a rapid increase in tension occurs. There is no secondary winding. Its role is played by the case, which is made of an alloy with ferrimagnetic properties.
As a result of the action of Foucault eddy currents, magnetization reversal occurs, which causes heating of all feromagnetic surfaces.
The efficiency is about 99%. Boilers of this type are very heavy. They have a wide range of models.
Advantages when using induction-type boilers
Both water and low-temperature liquids can be used as a working fluid. Service life over 10 years.
Heating of the coolant occurs quickly, and the control unit will allow you to adjust the entire system as accurately as possible.
No scale forms. The efficiency of boilers of this type is 20-30% higher than that of boilers of similar types.
High weight, which requires special attention during installation.There are complaints about slight vibration during device operation.
High cost, minimum cost 30,000 rubles.
Also referred to electric types of heating houses and apartments.
According to experts, energy costs are insignificant when an air conditioner is operating, but installation, maintenance and purchase of the equipment itself is costly.
The adjustment is quite simple and convenient. They are used to maintain a comfortable temperature in a separate room.
The main disadvantage is that it requires constant professional service.
This radiator is the most common method of local space heating. It has long been widely used for heating individual rooms.
The efficiency of such a device is 100%. Very mobile, casters are provided on all models. It has the shape of a cast-iron battery, due to the ribbing, the heat exchange area increases.
Even after switching off, the oil cooler gives off heat for a long time.
A nichrome spiral is used as a heating element.
The air flow passes through the hot spiral heats up and is able to heat a small space, a small room.
It is not recommended to use this device for a long time, as it dries the air.
It cannot be used in heating a country house, only locally and not for long.
Heaters of this type are rarely used due to their inefficiency.
The design is simple: several spirals are placed in quartz tubes. This creates a directed heat flow and heating a small area of the room.
We are with you today considered almost all methods of electric heating.
The main conclusions can be made as follows :
All these activities will help to minimize heat losses and make heating comfortable and efficient.
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