What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages

Good thermal insulation will not be superfluous at any temperature. If you perform it efficiently and choose the right insulation, there will be more warmth in the house in the cold season, and coolness in the summer heat. Knowing what kind of insulation is , you can easily choose the best option for interior or exterior decoration.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Variety of types of heat insulators

What types of insulation are

There are several criteria for dividing heat insulators into specific groups. The classification is based on the purpose, form and composition of materials.

Varieties of insulation in the form

When choosing a material according to this criterion, it is necessary to consider what surface it will be mounted on. For external walls, plate or block heat insulators are more suitable. It is better to insulate the inside of the house with fibrous or roll materials.

Table 1. Types of heat-insulating materials in shape:

To choose the right insulation, you need to be well versed in its varieties.

Then it will last longer and will perform its functions to the fullest.

Types of insulation by composition

This classification is based on what raw materials the product is made from. Heaters on a natural basis are more suitable for interior decoration, and artificial materials are used for external thermal insulation or for rooms with high humidity.

Table 2. Classification by composition:

Organic Inorganic
Arbolit Polyfoam
Particleboard Foamed polyethylene
Fibrolite Penoplex
Ecowool Sotoplast insulation
Mineral wool Expanded polystyrene

Each type of material has its own set of characteristics.

It is used to determine how suitable it is for insulating a particular object.

Types of insulation according to the principle of operation

There are two types of thermal insulation - reflective and preventing . The first type reduces heat consumption by lowering the level of infrared light.

Reflective insulation, instead of retaining heat, prevents infrared radiation from freely passing through the walls of the house. They do not transmit heat, but reflect.

Most often, aluminum foil is used for these purposes. The surface of this material can reflect 90-97% of the heat that hits it.

The aluminum foil is laid in several layers. The last layer is covered with polyethylene. Such a heater does not take up much space, but at the same time maintains a comfortable microclimate in the house for a long time and at the same time serves as a vapor barrier.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Reflective type of insulation - aluminum foil

The second type involves the use of insulation with low thermal conductivity. For its manufacture, different groups of materials are used - organic and inorganic. Such heat insulators act according to a certain mechanism.Their role is to slow down the process of heat passage - so that it does not go outside for as long as possible.

What are the types of insulation for walls?

To choose a heat insulator for walls, you first need to understand its types and their technical characteristics.

"The main property of the insulation is the degree of thermal conductivity. This is an indicator of the amount of heat that this material is able to transmit."

Materials of organic origin are used for interior decoration. They are made using natural raw materials - waste from the woodworking industry or agricultural products. Additional components are plastic and cement.

Each species has its own characteristics.

Arbolite

For its manufacture, crushed sawdust, wood chips and reed stalks are used. Cement with calcium chloride and alumina is used as a binding component.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Arbolite insulation

Properties of wood concrete:

  • environmental friendliness - 90% consists of organic substances;
  • is almost not affected by mold and mildew;
  • provides good noise insulation and air exchange;
  • low heat conductivity - no more 0.12 W / (m * K);
  • easily withstands frost, fireproof.

The material lends itself well to processing. It can be sawn into pieces, screwed into screws or hammered in nails. From this, it does not crumble or break.

Chipboard

90% consists of crushed shavings. The remaining 10% are formaldehyde resins and antiseptics.

The material is also impregnated with fire retardants - substances that increase its fire resistance.

Particleboard characteristics:

  • homogeneous structure;
  • environmental friendliness;
  • resistance to temperature extremes;
  • humidity - within 5-10%;
  • ease of installation.

"To choose high-quality slabs, you need to focus on your sense of smell. If the product does not smell, then it is completely safe for health. Particleboard with a high content of synthetic resins has a pronounced smell of chemistry" .

..

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Chipboard

The boards have weak edges in strength. So that they do not crumble, the sheets must be fitted to each other with maximum density. They also do not withstand high bending loads, so they can sag.

Foamed polyethylene

Has a porous structure. Consists of polyethylene and hydrocarbon-based foaming component.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Foamed polyethylene

Differs in the following set of characteristics:

  • provides good vapor barrier;
  • hardly absorbs moisture;
  • is not susceptible to chemicals and decay;
  • can withstand temperatures from -40 to +100 degrees;
  • serves as a reliable noise isolator.

Foamed polyethylene is produced in rolls.

Fiberboard

The basis for the material is wood chips.

Magnesite or cement is added to it as a binding component. Sold as slabs.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Fiberboard

The features of this insulation are:

  • fire safety;
  • ability to absorb noise;
  • low thermal conductivity - up to 0.1 W / (m * K);
  • increased resistance to aggressive chemical environment.

Suitable for wall insulation in rooms with high humidity - for a pool or a bathroom.

Fiberboard price

Fiberboard

Sotoplast insulation

It contains hexagon-shaped cells. They resemble honeycombs in appearance. The raw material for the material is cellulose, fiberglass or special fabrics. The top of the honeycomb is covered with a thin film layer. Epoxy or phenolic resin is used to bind the fibers.

The outer side of the heat insulator is a plastic sheet.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Insulation in the form of a corrugated cloth

Distinctive properties of the insulation:

  • absorbs noise;
  • retains heat for a long time;
  • fireproof;
  • strongly absorbs moisture.

"The strength of the corrugated sheet is low, therefore it is not used as an independent heat insulator - only together with asbestos and aluminum in the form of a three-layer panel."

Ecowool

The basis for it is paper and cardboard waste. If ecowool is laid with continuous spraying, there will be no seams on the surface of the walls.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Ecowool

The features of the material include:

  • high noise insulation;
  • health friendly;
  • absorbs moisture quickly;
  • retains heat for a long time.

But over time, the thermal insulation coefficient decreases, because the material loses up to 20% of its initial volume.

Cork wallpaper

At the same time it can function as a heater and finishing material. The raw material for it is the bark of the cork tree. It is first crushed and then pressed.

Cork wallpaper can be left in its natural form or varnished.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Cork insulation

They differ in the following characteristics:

  • environmental friendliness ;
  • long service life;
  • fire resistance;
  • excellent sound insulation.

The material also has antistatic and antimicrobial properties. An optimal microclimate is created in any room with the help of cork wallpaper.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Stone wool.

Benefits.

What are the types of front insulation

The walls of the house are recommended to be insulated from the outside. After the installation of external insulation, the cost of heating the house is reduced. Internal thermal insulation is done in cases where it is impossible to do it from the outside.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Insulation of the facade

"The correct choice of insulation and its high-quality installation ensures uniform heating in room due to the free circulation of heated air.

The outer layer of the heat insulator retains heat longer, which allows the walls to be dry. This protects them from premature destruction. "

External thermal insulation has other advantages as well. Due to it, it is provided:

  • protection of the facade from aggressive environmental influences;
  • additional noise isolation;
  • unobstructed "breathing" of the walls.

Different types of materials are used as insulation.

"Warm" plaster

As a basis for the preparation of this mixture, cement mortar is used, only instead of sand, the following components are added to it:

  • crushed pumice stone;
  • perlite sand;
  • expanded clay crumbs;
  • expanded polystyrene granules.
What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
"Warm" plaster on the facade of the building

This composition provides good vapor permeability and sound insulation ... "Warm" plaster does not absorb moisture and is a non-combustible material.

It protects the house from the invasion of bacteria. Mold and germs cannot penetrate through a thick layer of plaster.

But under the influence of high temperatures, wind or rain, the degree of thermal insulation gradually decreases.

Thermopanels

Simultaneously perform the function of insulation and finishing material. They are not cheap, due to the presence of a complex of positive qualities.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Thermal panels

Thermal panels differ in the following characteristics:

  • extensive color palette;
  • variety of textures;
  • durability;
  • health safety;
  • aesthetic appeal;
  • low weight.

The material is easy to mount. Additionally, it provides protection against fungi and germs.

Prices for thermal panels

Thermal panels

Polyurethane foam

Consists of polyester and emulsifiers. Differs in a foamy-cellular structure.

It is applied by spraying, therefore it is suitable for walls of complex configuration.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Polyurethane foam heat insulator

This insulation easily withstands temperature changes. It is completely fireproof.

Features of the material:

  • keeps warm for a long time;
  • almost does not let steam and moisture;
  • high resistance to fungi and mold;
  • does not corrode;
  • absorbs noise well.

It is also resistant to chemical attack.

Will not deform when in contact with acid, gasoline or alcohol. Polyurethane foam is an unattractive material for pests and insects. The average service life is from 50 years, but under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, it gradually collapses.

Polyfoam

Material with a porous structure, made by foaming. Consists of small granules tightly adjacent to each other.

The higher the indicators of its density, the stronger the material.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Foam insulation

Characteristics of foam:

  • moisture resistance;
  • long service life - from 60 years;
  • resistant to extreme temperatures;
  • resistant to bacteria and fungus.

This is the cheapest of all types of insulation. It is recommended to apply a layer of facade plaster on top of the foam, otherwise it will be subject to deformation.

Prices for foam

Polyfoam

Video - How to choose the thickness of foam for insulation

Basalt insulation

It contains basalt fiber, which is produced on the basis of natural minerals.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Basalt heat insulator

Differs in the following set of qualities:

  • increased porosity - up to 70%;
  • low thermal conductivity;
  • resistance to temperature extremes and chemical attack;
  • high vapor permeability - the material remains dry in any weather;
  • light weight;
  • high strength.

Basalt insulation is considered completely safe for health.

Foam concrete

Refers to block-type heat insulators. Its strength is the same as that of ordinary concrete. The only difference is in the structure - in foam concrete it is porous.

To make it, a foaming component is added to the concrete composition.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Foam concrete

Material specifications:

  • does not rot , not covered with mold;
  • service life - from 25 years ;
  • light weight;
  • environmental friendliness;
  • low thermal conductivity;
  • protects the building from dampness by creating an optimal microclimate in it.

Foam concrete can be easily cut or screwed into it with self-tapping screws, which simplifies the process of its installation.

Foam glass

Represents glass panels treated with a special composition. During processing, glass changes its structure - it becomes fine-meshed.

Due to this, its thermal insulation characteristics increase:

  • strength;
  • resistance to chemicals;
  • low flammability.

Foam glass also serves as a decorative finish.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Foam glass insulation

"The optimal period for facade work is from the end of spring and until the beginning of autumn, when the average air temperature is + 5-25 degrees. It is undesirable to carry out thermal insulation of facades in extreme cold or heat - this reduces its quality and service life. "

Heaters for a wooden house

Wood is considered a special type of material.

Walls made of it should be well ventilated and less in contact with moisture. Therefore, not all types of heat insulators are suitable for wooden buildings. Mineral wool or penoizol is most suitable for this purpose.

"Styrofoam cannot be used to insulate a wooden house. It will prevent the tree from breathing normally.

As a result, condensation forms on the walls, which will lead to the appearance of fungus and mold, and the wood will start to rot."

Mineral wool

It has a fibrous structure, made of molten glass with the addition of rock. It has a good set of characteristics:

  • easily withstands high temperatures;
  • does not lend itself to the influence of chemicals;
  • low thermal conductivity;
  • excellent sound insulation;
  • elasticity, ease of installation;
  • environmental friendliness;
  • service life within 30-80 years.

Available in rolls or slabs. Roll insulation is more often used for large buildings, and slabs for small houses.

No additional fixation required.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Mineral wool

"When working with it, be sure to use protective clothing and a mask ".

Rodents do not eat this material, but if you do not cover it with trim on top, they can settle in it. Mineral wool can be used to insulate houses made of wooden beams and using frame technology.

Prices for mineral wool

Mineral wool

Penoizol

The texture reminds ordinary foam, but its mechanism of action is the same as that of assembly foam.

The material is applied to a special frame. Within a day, it dries out and becomes hard.

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Penoizol

Features of penoizol:

  • medium level of vapor permeability;
  • completely fireproof - it can extinguish itself in case of fire;
  • is not afraid of moisture;
  • during installation, it fills the existing voids.

Special tools are required to work with this material.

What are the dimensions of the insulation

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
The dimensions of the insulation is an important criterion

What is the kind of insulation

The main criterion when choosing the dimensions of a heat insulator is its thickness.

Length and width do not play a big role. They are taken into account only when calculating the required amount of materials. The dimensions of the insulation depend on its belonging to a particular type.

Table 3.Insulation dimensions:

Name Thickness Length Width
Polyfoam 20-100 mm 500-2000 mm 1000 mm
Penoplex 20-100 mm 1200-2400 mm 600 mm
Mineral wool 46-214 mm 1176 mm 566-614 mm
Isolon 3.

5-20 mm

From 10 m 600-1200 mm
Arbolit 250 mm 500 mm 200-400 mm
Chipboard 10-22 mm 1830-2800 mm 20170-2620 mm
Fiberboard 30-150 mm 2400-3000 mm 600-1200 mm

When buying materials, you need to pay attention to the area of ​​the roll or plate. Usually it is indicated on the packaging. To calculate how much insulation you need, you need to do the following:

  1. Calculate the perimeter of the building - add the length and width. Multiply this amount by 2.
  2. Measure the height and multiply this value by the perimeter of the house.

  3. Divide the resulting value by the area of ​​one roll or plate.
  4. Multiply this number by 0.15.

"Roll insulation is recommended to be laid with a small margin. Also, any material is subject to shrinkage, therefore 10-15% is always added to the calculations".

What kind of insulation is: advantages and disadvantages
Home insulation

To reduce heating costs and keep the house warm for a long time, it is necessary to choose a high-quality heat insulator. If you need to insulate the house from the outside, it is better to use inorganic materials - they are less exposed to the external environment.

Video - How to insulate the facade of a house without experience, with your own hands

Insulation made from natural materials is more suitable for interior decoration. Knowing the technical characteristics of each type, you can easily choose the best option for a heat insulator for your home.

.