Good thermal insulation will not be superfluous at any temperature. If you perform it efficiently and choose the right insulation, there will be more warmth in the house in the cold season, and coolness in the summer heat. Knowing what kind of insulation is , you can easily choose the best option for interior or exterior decoration.
There are several criteria for dividing heat insulators into specific groups. The classification is based on the purpose, form and composition of materials.
When choosing a material according to this criterion, it is necessary to consider what surface it will be mounted on. For external walls, plate or block heat insulators are more suitable. It is better to insulate the inside of the house with fibrous or roll materials.
Table 1. Types of heat-insulating materials in shape:
To choose the right insulation, you need to be well versed in its varieties.
Then it will last longer and will perform its functions to the fullest.
This classification is based on what raw materials the product is made from. Heaters on a natural basis are more suitable for interior decoration, and artificial materials are used for external thermal insulation or for rooms with high humidity.
Table 2. Classification by composition:
|Mineral wool||Expanded polystyrene|
Each type of material has its own set of characteristics.
It is used to determine how suitable it is for insulating a particular object.
There are two types of thermal insulation - reflective and preventing . The first type reduces heat consumption by lowering the level of infrared light.
Reflective insulation, instead of retaining heat, prevents infrared radiation from freely passing through the walls of the house. They do not transmit heat, but reflect.
Most often, aluminum foil is used for these purposes. The surface of this material can reflect 90-97% of the heat that hits it.
The aluminum foil is laid in several layers. The last layer is covered with polyethylene. Such a heater does not take up much space, but at the same time maintains a comfortable microclimate in the house for a long time and at the same time serves as a vapor barrier.
The second type involves the use of insulation with low thermal conductivity. For its manufacture, different groups of materials are used - organic and inorganic. Such heat insulators act according to a certain mechanism.Their role is to slow down the process of heat passage - so that it does not go outside for as long as possible.
To choose a heat insulator for walls, you first need to understand its types and their technical characteristics.
"The main property of the insulation is the degree of thermal conductivity. This is an indicator of the amount of heat that this material is able to transmit."
Materials of organic origin are used for interior decoration. They are made using natural raw materials - waste from the woodworking industry or agricultural products. Additional components are plastic and cement.
Each species has its own characteristics.
For its manufacture, crushed sawdust, wood chips and reed stalks are used. Cement with calcium chloride and alumina is used as a binding component.
Properties of wood concrete:
The material lends itself well to processing. It can be sawn into pieces, screwed into screws or hammered in nails. From this, it does not crumble or break.
90% consists of crushed shavings. The remaining 10% are formaldehyde resins and antiseptics.
The material is also impregnated with fire retardants - substances that increase its fire resistance.
"To choose high-quality slabs, you need to focus on your sense of smell. If the product does not smell, then it is completely safe for health. Particleboard with a high content of synthetic resins has a pronounced smell of chemistry" .
The boards have weak edges in strength. So that they do not crumble, the sheets must be fitted to each other with maximum density. They also do not withstand high bending loads, so they can sag.
Has a porous structure. Consists of polyethylene and hydrocarbon-based foaming component.
Differs in the following set of characteristics:
Foamed polyethylene is produced in rolls.
The basis for the material is wood chips.
Magnesite or cement is added to it as a binding component. Sold as slabs.
The features of this insulation are:
Suitable for wall insulation in rooms with high humidity - for a pool or a bathroom.
It contains hexagon-shaped cells. They resemble honeycombs in appearance. The raw material for the material is cellulose, fiberglass or special fabrics. The top of the honeycomb is covered with a thin film layer. Epoxy or phenolic resin is used to bind the fibers.
The outer side of the heat insulator is a plastic sheet.
Distinctive properties of the insulation:
"The strength of the corrugated sheet is low, therefore it is not used as an independent heat insulator - only together with asbestos and aluminum in the form of a three-layer panel."
The basis for it is paper and cardboard waste. If ecowool is laid with continuous spraying, there will be no seams on the surface of the walls.
The features of the material include:
But over time, the thermal insulation coefficient decreases, because the material loses up to 20% of its initial volume.
At the same time it can function as a heater and finishing material. The raw material for it is the bark of the cork tree. It is first crushed and then pressed.
Cork wallpaper can be left in its natural form or varnished.
They differ in the following characteristics:
The material also has antistatic and antimicrobial properties. An optimal microclimate is created in any room with the help of cork wallpaper.
The walls of the house are recommended to be insulated from the outside. After the installation of external insulation, the cost of heating the house is reduced. Internal thermal insulation is done in cases where it is impossible to do it from the outside.
"The correct choice of insulation and its high-quality installation ensures uniform heating in room due to the free circulation of heated air.
The outer layer of the heat insulator retains heat longer, which allows the walls to be dry. This protects them from premature destruction. "
External thermal insulation has other advantages as well. Due to it, it is provided:
Different types of materials are used as insulation.
As a basis for the preparation of this mixture, cement mortar is used, only instead of sand, the following components are added to it:
This composition provides good vapor permeability and sound insulation ... "Warm" plaster does not absorb moisture and is a non-combustible material.
It protects the house from the invasion of bacteria. Mold and germs cannot penetrate through a thick layer of plaster.
But under the influence of high temperatures, wind or rain, the degree of thermal insulation gradually decreases.
Simultaneously perform the function of insulation and finishing material. They are not cheap, due to the presence of a complex of positive qualities.
Thermal panels differ in the following characteristics:
The material is easy to mount. Additionally, it provides protection against fungi and germs.
Consists of polyester and emulsifiers. Differs in a foamy-cellular structure.
It is applied by spraying, therefore it is suitable for walls of complex configuration.
This insulation easily withstands temperature changes. It is completely fireproof.
Features of the material:
It is also resistant to chemical attack.
Will not deform when in contact with acid, gasoline or alcohol. Polyurethane foam is an unattractive material for pests and insects. The average service life is from 50 years, but under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, it gradually collapses.
Material with a porous structure, made by foaming. Consists of small granules tightly adjacent to each other.
The higher the indicators of its density, the stronger the material.
Characteristics of foam:
This is the cheapest of all types of insulation. It is recommended to apply a layer of facade plaster on top of the foam, otherwise it will be subject to deformation.
It contains basalt fiber, which is produced on the basis of natural minerals.
Differs in the following set of qualities:
Basalt insulation is considered completely safe for health.
Refers to block-type heat insulators. Its strength is the same as that of ordinary concrete. The only difference is in the structure - in foam concrete it is porous.
To make it, a foaming component is added to the concrete composition.
Foam concrete can be easily cut or screwed into it with self-tapping screws, which simplifies the process of its installation.
Represents glass panels treated with a special composition. During processing, glass changes its structure - it becomes fine-meshed.
Due to this, its thermal insulation characteristics increase:
Foam glass also serves as a decorative finish.
"The optimal period for facade work is from the end of spring and until the beginning of autumn, when the average air temperature is + 5-25 degrees. It is undesirable to carry out thermal insulation of facades in extreme cold or heat - this reduces its quality and service life. "
Wood is considered a special type of material.
Walls made of it should be well ventilated and less in contact with moisture. Therefore, not all types of heat insulators are suitable for wooden buildings. Mineral wool or penoizol is most suitable for this purpose.
"Styrofoam cannot be used to insulate a wooden house. It will prevent the tree from breathing normally.
As a result, condensation forms on the walls, which will lead to the appearance of fungus and mold, and the wood will start to rot."
It has a fibrous structure, made of molten glass with the addition of rock. It has a good set of characteristics:
Available in rolls or slabs. Roll insulation is more often used for large buildings, and slabs for small houses.
No additional fixation required.
"When working with it, be sure to use protective clothing and a mask ".
Rodents do not eat this material, but if you do not cover it with trim on top, they can settle in it. Mineral wool can be used to insulate houses made of wooden beams and using frame technology.
The texture reminds ordinary foam, but its mechanism of action is the same as that of assembly foam.
The material is applied to a special frame. Within a day, it dries out and becomes hard.
Features of penoizol:
Special tools are required to work with this material.
What is the kind of insulation
The main criterion when choosing the dimensions of a heat insulator is its thickness.
Length and width do not play a big role. They are taken into account only when calculating the required amount of materials. The dimensions of the insulation depend on its belonging to a particular type.
Table 3.Insulation dimensions:
|Polyfoam||20-100 mm||500-2000 mm||1000 mm|
|Penoplex||20-100 mm||1200-2400 mm||600 mm|
|Mineral wool||46-214 mm||1176 mm||566-614 mm|
|Isolon|| 3. |
|From 10 m||600-1200 mm|
|Arbolit||250 mm||500 mm||200-400 mm|
|Chipboard||10-22 mm||1830-2800 mm||20170-2620 mm|
|Fiberboard||30-150 mm||2400-3000 mm||600-1200 mm|
When buying materials, you need to pay attention to the area of the roll or plate. Usually it is indicated on the packaging. To calculate how much insulation you need, you need to do the following:
"Roll insulation is recommended to be laid with a small margin. Also, any material is subject to shrinkage, therefore 10-15% is always added to the calculations".
To reduce heating costs and keep the house warm for a long time, it is necessary to choose a high-quality heat insulator. If you need to insulate the house from the outside, it is better to use inorganic materials - they are less exposed to the external environment.
Insulation made from natural materials is more suitable for interior decoration. Knowing the technical characteristics of each type, you can easily choose the best option for a heat insulator for your home.
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |01, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020