Environmental cleanliness in the construction of private cottages is gaining more and more popularity. For this reason, wooden facades are no longer a rarity. Everyone knows that wood is beautiful in texture and at the same time a very capricious material to use. In this article we will tell you how to preserve the strength of natural wood, to protect it from the harmful effects of the external environment. Let's figure out why impregnations are required and what paint is better to paint a wooden house.
We will describe the technology of carrying out measures for the processing of a wooden facade, taking into account the previous operation.
It does not matter whether the house is clad with a building board according to the curtain facade system or is entirely assembled from a bar, the wood used in street decoration requires protection. There are objective reasons for this, any wood material has the following unattractive properties:
Unprotected wood dries over time, loses its attractive texture and color (turns gray ), become loose, and therefore not strong. That is why the wood on the facade should be protected from the following factors:
In order to enhance the natural excellent characteristics of wood, and at the same time reduce the risk factors of unpleasant situations, the wood is impregnated with special compounds and treated with paintwork materials (paints and varnishes).
Priming solutions or impregnations can be used as a preparation material for painting, and can also be a finishing finish. There are 3 types of primers:
Since it is difficult to give preference to only one method of protection, fire-biological protection compositions have been developed, which include 2 mechanisms. Water-repellent primers generally protect against UV rays and strengthen the wood.
Note! All primers have a short lifespan as a topcoat. Therefore, without further staining, the facade will have to be processed regularly every 2-3 years.
Impregnation treatment will not only improve the appearance, but also increase the period exploitation of wood. For facade work, deep penetration compositions on an organic basis should be chosen.Such solutions are usually toxic and have a characteristic unpleasant odor.
When working with them, PPE (personal protective equipment) is used: gloves, glasses, respirator.
Note! Most primers have a transparent base, which means that processing with such a composition will preserve the natural texture and color of the wood.
Glazing impregnation for wood
Any paintwork material used for work on the facade must have a certain set of qualities. But in the situation with wood, this list increases, in view of the natural vulnerability of the tree.
Characteristics that any facade material should have:
When it comes to painting a wooden facade, paint requirements are supplemented by the following criteria:
The decorative material should not provide a barrier to moisture escaping from the body of the wall in order to prevent decay.
Note! When choosing a paint for working on a wooden facade, you should pay attention to the antistatic properties of the material. A paint coating with a high given indicator will less accumulate dust and fine dirt, which means that the facade will be much easier to maintain.
Paint for wooden facades
In fact, when choosing a paint, the type of future surface is selected, which will be obtained after applying the material to the wood. For outdoor use, all paints are classified according to the type of solvent, the resulting texture and the quality of the gloss.
Dullness or gloss of the surface is not only beauty. Glossy finishes are more durable because they contain more resins. Matt surfaces are usually obtained from breathable decorative compounds.
In addition, the glossy finish is more resistant to moisture and less prone to abrasion.
Manufacturers indicate on the can the degree of gloss of the final coating in a number in the range from 0 to 100. It is customary to divide the degree of gloss into 6 main groups.
Table 1. Degrees of gloss.
|0 to 5||matte without reflective effect|
|from 5 to 10||matte with low reflection|
|from 10 up to 30||semi-matt have some gloss|
|from 30 to 60||semi-gloss with medium gloss|
|60 to 90||glossy, glossy|
|90 to 100||super shiny|
All types of paints are diluted with 3 types of solvent:
Paints diluted with inorganic compounds are used extremely little in everyday life. For wooden facades, materials are usually used that are diluted to the desired consistency with water, as well as enamels, varnishes, alkyd and oil paints. The specificity of organic solvents is an unpleasant odor.
Note! Water-dispersive materials can be applied only at positive temperatures.
Paints diluted with organic compounds can be used with a slight minus.
Facade paints are textured (volumetric) and a material of formation for smooth surfaces. Textured compositions are not used for wood processing, since wood initially has a rich texture and does not need additional decoration. Smooth formulations can be transparent, such as varnishes, or dense, like enamel.
Before you start painting a tree, you should decide on what quality facade you plan to get as a result.
Modern paints and varnishes allow wood to be processed and at the same time to obtain surfaces of different appearance:
Consider the most popular compositions, their positive qualities and some disadvantages.
The most famous compositions and the most affordable. The material completely covers the natural color, creating a dense film on the surface. It is this layer that perfectly protects the wood from moisture, the coating has practically zero absorbency of any solutions.
Oil paints based on drying oil are produced.
This ink has a very short life, fades quickly and begins to crack when exposed to temperature. The reverse side of hydrophobicity is the lack of vapor permeability, that is, the layer does not allow moisture to pass through, but also does not allow the tree to breathe, which can lead to rot inside the wood mass.
Among other things, such compositions dry for a very long time, about 10 -12 hours. More suitable for the current repair of low buildings, fences or sheds, as they require regular renovation.
Compositions formed on the basis of resins with the addition of oils. The PF labeling is more understandable to a wide circle. The composition does not penetrate to a sufficient depth, forming a strong film on the surface. It dries faster than oil formulations, but has a very unpleasant odor. They form a hydrophobic durable layer that does not fade from moisture and temperature.
It is this combination of qualities that makes alkyd paint very popular for the treatment of wooden facades in regions with high humidity.
The paint loses its color under direct sunlight, and over time the surface loses its gloss. If it happens that the paint has been applied to damp wood, then the layer will begin to bubble.
Compositions based on organic compounds or resins. Well proven in humid climates.
The silicone (or latex) paint finish is durable even after one coat. The surface has a high degree of chemical inertness, the facade can be cleaned by almost any means. The paint does not fade in the sun and does not fade. In addition, the coating is resistant to mechanical stress and abrasion. The main drawback is the very high price.
In a special article we will tell you in detail about the advantages of silicone paint for the facade, and also consider the dyeing technology.
Waterproof silicone paint
Popular paints for finishing wooden facades. On sale are acrylic paints on a water dispersion basis, that is, they are diluted with water and compositions in an organic solvent. They have excellent adhesion, form a vapor-permeable layer that is resistant to moisture and ultraviolet radiation. That is, the coating does not fade, the color is not washed out by rain, and the wood breathes.
The paint has no unpleasant odor and dries quickly. The protective layer is abrasion resistant and has a long service life.
Note! There are acrylic compounds on sale that allow repair work even at low temperatures.
Such paints can be silicone, silicate and acrylic, they are united by the fact that they are all diluted to the desired consistency with clean water. Depending on the base substance, the price of the product can vary greatly.
The advantages of such formulations include:
The paint dries very quickly and is very easy to apply.
Some disadvantages are still present. The water in the dye penetrates into the wood, so some surface mobility is assumed. The façade should be treated with a water-repellent primer before painting.
If there is a need to paint a facade in an already operated house, it is quite possible to do this work with your own hands. To do this, you need to take care of the availability of free time, you will need a lot of it. Purchase consumables in advance: primer and paint in the required amount, coloring pigment (color) and solvent as needed. The approximate consumption rates of the compounds and the service life of the coating are in the table below.
Consumption rates of compositions and the service life of the coating
|Type of paintwork||Consumption (g / m²)||Service life (years)|
|Silicone||150 - 200||20 or more|
|Alkyd||100 - 120||20|
|Acrylic||130 - 200||15-20|
|Water dispersive||110 - 130||20 or more|
In addition to materials, the following tools are required to put the facade in order:
Depending on the type of paint used, you will need different personal protective equipment: gloves, respirator, glasses.
The whole process takes place in 4 stages ...
At the same time, scrupulousness and attention are required to complete the work. It is important to do everything carefully, without leaving untreated places.
Stage 1. Removal of the old coating. This procedure is performed if there is an old paint coating.
It must be removed.To do this, you can use spatulas, a metal brush, sandpaper or a grinder with a nozzle. There will be quite a lot of dust, so you should work with glasses and a respirator.
All work is performed in dry, not hot weather. You will have to protect the entire area of the facade, including the joints of logs or boards.
In order for the work to be done efficiently and without delays, dismantle the gutter elements, shutters and platbands from the facade in advance. In addition to old paint, dust and street dirt should be removed from the facade.
Important! Old paint should not be left on, even if the layer sits firmly on the surface. Its service life will expire and it will peel off along with the new coating.
After after the facade is cleaned of paint, the wood is sanded and putty. If there are places of darkening, or foci of fungal infection are visible, the top layer of the material should be removed to a clean texture. The rest of the surface is leveled. Existing defects on the surface are eliminated by filling. The putty must dry before proceeding to the next steps.
The filler material should be matched with impregnation and paint.
Step 3. Deep penetration impregnation is applied to the cleaned wooden surface , the composition of which is selected depending on the characteristics that require amplification. Usually, the impregnation is applied with a wide brush along the grain in order to preserve and emphasize the natural texture of the wood.
Do not neglect priming, impregnation will not only improve the quality of the wood, but will increase the adhesion of paint to the surface, while reducing the amount of material used.
Even despite the fact that primers for wood are quite expensive, their use is justified. Before applying the paint, the impregnation must dry; the period of complete drying is indicated by the manufacturer on the package.
Step 4. Before starting work, ask about long-term weather forecast. Rain is not suitable for coloring, as well as heat.
In addition, work should be carried out in the daytime, when the dew has either already evaporated or has not yet settled, that is, from 10 to 18 hours. The paint is applied in several layers along the grain. Each next layer should be applied only after the previous one has dried.
It would seem that the process is quite simple and transparent. But here, as elsewhere, there are nuances:
Such work will be especially relevant if the topcoat is planned to be made transparent.
The choice of material for processing a wooden facade mainly depends on the wishes of the home owners. But when choosing a paint, climatic conditions of operation should also be taken into account.
For humid areas or hot climates, different formulations should be used. At the same time, be sure to strictly follow the instructions for applying paint, as well as properly prepare the surface before starting work.
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