What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video

What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video Features of floor leveling before laying laminate and linoleum. Clean, dry, hard, and most importantly - even - these are the requirements that must be met for the foundation for the further use of finishing materials. Unfortunately, although there are a huge number of instructions from the craftsmen and the manufacturers themselves,

most people simply do not know how to level the floor for laying linoleum and laminate.

Requirements for the base for laying laminate

According to the requirements of all manufacturers of hard flooring, which include parquet board and laminate, the bearing layer must comply with all paragraphs of the instructions, as well as SP 20. 13330.

2011 / SNiP 2.33.13-88.

The main parameters that the base must meet:

  1. What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video Rigidity and strength. The floor should not under any circumstances collapse and bend under a force greater than 15 MPa or more.

  2. Cleanliness. The floor should be free of any traces of bitumen, glue, dust and free from residues of paint and varnish and other coatings, soot, etc.
  3. Dry. For concrete and cement-sand screeds, the residual moisture coefficient should not be more than 5%, and for anhydrite floor no more than 1.5%, for wood and wood-containing coating no more than 11.

    5%. If all the above indicators are observed, the change in the size of the geometry of the subfloor is minimal, even if there are sharp temperature drops and changes in the level of humidity.

  4. Evenness and solidity. The permissible unevenness levels are no more than 0.1 cm for every 1 meter of surface.

    The base should be as smooth as possible, without bumps and pits, cracks and sagging.

As practice has shown, it is the last condition that is violated more often than others. Checking the evenness of wood and mineral floors is not that difficult, but much more difficult to fix. Why level the floors in a house, apartment, store or office with a laminate? The answer is very simple - to make the coating last as long as possible. Any defect under the flooring is a source of constant crunch, squeak, crackling, due to which slabs and locks will collapse much faster.

Manufacturers of finishing building materials have developed a huge number of optimal ways to eliminate failures, irregularities, distortions, drops, cracks and other defects in the base:

  1. Continuous leveling screed. It can be polymer concrete, concrete, cement-sand (semi-dry and traditional), gypsum, aerated concrete, cement-gypsum and other types of screed. This can also include a self-leveling self-leveling floor. It can be made from a ready-made mixture or independently mixed components based on a binder, liquid and fillers (polymer suspension or ordinary water).
  2. What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video Dry prefabricated screeds (and adjustable).

    They can be made from any sheet material that is intended for flooring on a frame, rigid and bulk base. Usually. Usually these are glass-magnesite or gypsum-fiber sheets, chipboard, oriented strand board or cement-chipboard, as well as edged boards, etc. In the assortment of certain manufacturers, there are even special leveling sheets made of very dense MDF / cork composite.

The advantage of mineral screeds is that they have high shear and compression strength, improved density.

In addition, they can be used in rooms with high and normal humidity when combined with waterproofing materials for leveling the floor with laying laminate. The layer thickness will vary from 0.1 to 10 cm, which means that the series is perfect for eliminating minor irregularities and large differences. The disadvantages are decent weight (with the exception of lightweight mixtures based on perlite), are laborious to use and have a long drying time - from 1 to 4 weeks.

Precast bearing layers make it possible to level the laminate floor with your own hands in 1-4 days.

This method is the most convenient and fastest in order to remove the imperfections of the base with a layer of 2 cm. Such a ready-made screed weighs several times less than a mineral one, and the material can be laid immediately, without a break of 2-6 weeks. The disadvantage is that such a rough coating is not recommended for use in rooms with high humidity, and the strength is not more than 15 MPa.

Let's also talk about noise isolation. Laminate flooring can be installed in a "floating way", ie without bonding the base.

For these and other reasons, floor material resonates with airborne and impact noises. It is for this reason that it is worth making a prefabricated or continuous screed and laying a noise-suppressing or noise-scattering layer of vibroacoustic membranes, polymer elastic plates, frame systems with HVO, fiber mats and other similar materials. The range of such products for the floor is huge, and the selection of the best option should be entrusted to specialists.

How to level a concrete floor

A base made of concrete is versatile. It can work with any formulations and complexes.

It is for this reason that different alignment methods are used from the type of defect.

Grinding

What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video If there is small nodules, bumps, drops, then you can use the fastest, but dirtiest way of smoothing - grinding. To do this, use a grated emery paper or a professional sander and use a construction vacuum cleaner in pairs. Such devices can also be rented, but components like nozzle cups for concrete and stone, abrasive wheels, a respirator and safety glasses will have to be purchased separately, or you will have to hire a specialist who has all this equipment.

Local leveling with repair mixtures

To level the concrete floor area before laying the laminate - fill up cracks, local recesses, potholes, and also make slope on a terrace or balcony, it is not necessary to re-do the middle-layer screed.

We offer the use of special compounds called repair compounds. These can be dry mixes based on gypsum and polymer binder, purchased pastes or polymer compounds, which have a number of distinctive features :

  • Rapid strength gain.
  • Small machining area or coating thickness.
  • Short drying time - from 1 to 72 hours.

When choosing products, it is worth considering that the compositions can be universal (for external and internal works), as well as those that are intended for finishing only from the inside of the room.

According to manufacturers, they are suitable for any topcoat in commercial and residential buildings.

Concrete screed

Under the screed layer, we mean the upper part of the structure in the subfloor, on which any finishing coating will be installed, from laminate to ceramic.

A tie is required in order to:

  • What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video Make an even and as smooth surface as possible.
  • Provide static and dynamic strength of the structure.
  • Evenly distribute deformation loads on the supports or underlying layers.

  • Form the required slope.

Mineral screed types have the same density of the entire layer and compressive strength, ranging from 160 kg / cm 2 and more. The surface must be free of cracks, chips, sagging and other defects. The thickness will vary from specific conditions (type of base base, presence of a floor heating system or communications, type of reinforcement, etc.).

Screed floor is made from:

  • Dry industrial mixtures - they are easy to use, especially ready-made cement-sand mixtures that are packaged in bags with a volume of 25-75 kg. They need to be filled with water or polymer dispersion.
  • Cement-sand mortar , which is made by hand. To do this, you need to buy cement of a brand not lower than M400, fine quartz sand in a ratio of 1 to 3 (by weight). The composition must necessarily contain clean water, from about 0.

    45 to 0.55 liters per kilogram of binder. The finished mass should be homogeneous, have a gray color and be at least 200 grade.

  • Concrete. In this case, foam concretes of a category not lower than B3 are used.

    5 (the density of which will be from 600 to 1000 kg / m 3 ), and light masses such as expanded clay concrete, perlite concrete with a class of at least 5 (density less than or equal to 1.3 t / m 3 ), as well as standard concrete, the class of which is B15 and corresponds to the M200 grade.A screed made of lightweight and cellular mass differs in that it is porous and has high thermal insulation properties. In contrast, classical concrete creates less shrinkage and makes the layer stronger.

The mineral screed for leveling the floor for laying the laminate is created in 5 steps:

  1. First, prepare the base, and here includes cleaning the base or strengthening, filling each gap between the wall and floor slabs, priming, steam, hydro, sound and thermal insulation, installation of a heated floor system.

  2. What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video After that, you should identify the zero mark and set all the beacons. These can be pipes, metal profiles, and even screwing in self-tapping screws and anchors is often used. They are installed parallel to each other at a distance of up to 200 cm so that it is possible to level the mortar layer under it using the rule.
  3. Wire mesh reinforcement (if required). Often, in order to strengthen the screed, fiberglass or fiber fibers are used, as well as fiberglass meshes and other polymeric materials.

  4. Grouting and laying. For a large coverage area, it is better to prepare the mixture in a concrete mixer, since in one large room the floor will be laid all day and without interruption. The composition must necessarily be tough, slightly blurry, but not cracked along the surface. It should be applied in strips and along the lighthouses, starting from the far wall and gradually moving towards the entrance opening.
  5. Compaction of the resulting screed.

    It is advisable to use a construction vibrator for this, and after 30 minutes we advise you to wipe the layer with a rail to get an even and slightly rough surface. After that, cover with plastic wrap so that the layer evenly ripens and hardens.

The optimal drying time will be at least 4 weeks, regardless of what layer thickness was used.

Self-leveling floor

This type of floor is an industrial mixture that consists of a binder, a filler, and a modifying additive. They are produced in a huge assortment, and there are different types:

  • What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video Thin-layer leveling agent, it is used for leveling from 0 to 3 cm.

    They differ in that they have a high degree of spreading and the minimum drying time is a maximum of 5 days.

  • Finishing medium and thin-layer compounds, they are designed to form a smooth and even floor with a thickness of up to 6 cm for future laying of parquet, laminate and linoleum. Drying period is up to 2 weeks.
  • Universal / base mixes for initial leveling, having a layer of up to 10 cm. They can be used for both interior and exterior decoration of premises.

    After 2-3 weeks, the surface is dry and ready for laminate installation.

Please note, that for a weak supporting structure, usually lightweight types of mixtures are produced, where quartz filler is replaced with perlite, expanded clay and other crushed components.

It is not difficult to make a floor from a self-leveling compound - seal the mixture with water, and then try to quickly apply it manually or mechanically to the prepared substrate, level it a little and roll it over the mixture with a needle roller to create deaeration.

Interestingly, that the rough mixtures, which can be leveled by themselves, parts are confused with a self-leveling decorative floor. The first type is a dry composition made on the basis of gypsum and cement, in the second, these are polymer (epoxy, polyurethane, methyl methacrylate) semi-liquid or liquid compositions, which are required for the manufacture of 3 D-coatings.

Dry screed

In fact, this is a prefabricated type of flooring made of durable sheet materials, which is fixed on a concrete floor on a frame base or using self-tapping screws. Such constructs will be indispensable if you need:

  • Avoid any "wet" process.
  • Speed ​​up work execution.
  • Raise the level of the carrier layer (adjustable floor) to a large extent, or even out the difference.

There are many variations of designs and the main ones will be listed and described below.

  • Bulk floor

What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video This is a special structure , in which the lower layer is expanded clay backfill with expanded perlite mass, silica or quartz sand, fine-grained slag and other inorganic bulk materials with a maximum particle size of 0. 2-0. 5 cm, and humidity not more than 1%. Together with the non-metallic filler, you can use EPSP boards, foam or mineral wool tightly stacked to each other.

The top layer can be made from durable sheets of chipboard, gypsum fiber board, plywood or OSB.

It is best to use a Knauf Superfloor with a 5 cm mounting rebate, or shnupovanny chipboard. The minimum permissible screed thickness is 4 cm, and the maximum 10 cm. This type of subfloor is suitable for both girder and slab floors (prefabricated, monolithic and others).

  • Frame floor

In fact, this is a common and well-known floor on logs. For him, on a concrete base, timber slats or a metal profile are installed at a level with an interval of no more than 0.

4-0. 5 meters, if you wish, you can put insulation in the "windows". Sheets of plywood, chipboard and other similar materials are installed on top of the frame.

  • Adjustable floor

This type of floor is very difficult to make, but it will be very useful for new construction or renovation work. Plywood sheets or wooden logs should rest on the supporting fasteners screwed into them - bolts-pillars, rods-pillars, anchors, etc.

The position of the supports will vary in height due to the rotation of the bolt along its axis.The level of the rack is fixed with dowel-nails or a special stop, which does not allow the structure setting to get lost.

  • Hard floor

What points need to be considered for leveling the floor before laying laminate and linoleum: Overview + Video This method is the most simple in the execution of the base layer, and also allows you to level the concrete base and increase its thermal insulation properties. One or two layers of plywood sheets, chipboard, gypsum fiber board or any other similar material should be fixed on the primed and cleaned floor surface using hardware, liquid nails or polymer-based glue. The optimum deck thickness is 1.

2-2. 4 cm.

The choice of method will depend on your financial capabilities, as well as the initial condition of the concrete base. Ideally, it is worth inviting a specialist for consultation, who will be able to determine all the necessary parameters and offer various ways to eliminate the shortcomings with a detailed calculation of costs.

How to level a wooden floor

Now it's time to talk about how to level a wooden floor for laminate flooring.

I would like to note right away that the price of the issue is small and available to everyone. If you plan to lay trim material on board flooring, check each plank. The elements of the floor must necessarily sit evenly, firmly and tightly to each other. A foundation that will meet all these requirements does not need additional preparation. But if there are noticeable differences, imperfections and irregularities, t o to perform leveling work, use the following technologies:

  1. Scraping and grinding machine.

    So you can smooth out small imperfections, remove slabs, and more.

  2. Puttying using repair compound or wood sealant. Suitable for locally filling chips, cracks, gaps, knots falling out.
  3. Semi-dry or wet mineral type screed on a separating layer. It is made from a sand-cement mixture, light or cellular concrete.

  4. Self-leveling floor in a thin layer or lightweight with the use of underlayment. You should choose elastic mixtures for a wooden base, since they are many times more resistant to deformation.
  5. Prefabricated screed of any type, you can use a rigid, frame and even on a bulk foundation. It is implemented according to the same principles as when working with a concrete floor.

Any of the leveling methods described above makes it possible to obtain at the end a solid, even and reliable base for laying the laminate.

Naturally, for the work you will need certain knowledge and skills, so if you are not very confident in your strength, then it is better to turn to professionals.

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