Types of planers and their purpose + photo. The most famous carpenter is a fairytale character - Pope Carlo, and he said that woodwork does not tolerate haste and fuss.
This is a matter for the soul and it must necessarily bring satisfaction, a sense of peace. The correct type of plane will help you with this. It is a carpentry tool that is used to plan wood.
Its main purpose is to give the desired shape to the surfaces of wooden elements, eliminate roughness, chamfer and fit parts to the desired size.
The history of the hand-type plane goes back to ancient times with deep roots, and the first, simplest variations of the device were discovered during excavations of the famous city of Pompeii.
Over the many years of evolution of such a device as a plane, a sufficiently large number of its types appeared, which could be used not only for processing a wood plane, but even for curly cutting. To really enjoy making objects with your own hands, you should have a good plane in stock, and then you will get incredible works of art from the simplest piece of wood. The current planes can be roughly divided into metal and wooden models, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages, but in terms of design features, the tools are very similar to each other, as if twin brothers.
The most common plane consists of the following parts:
- Outsole (this is the body).
- Tool clamping.
- Chip ejection slot.
- Horn - front grip.
- Cutting depth adjuster.
- Stop - rear handle.
The main structural element is the cutter - this is the cutting element, which is made in the form of a sharpened plate. The blade is located at a predetermined angle to the processed wood surface.
Due to the built-in regulator, the knife extends to a specific distance, and this makes it possible to precisely adjust the cutting depth, as well as what thickness the chips will be removed. In factory-type models, the blade sharpening angle is the most common, but professional craftsmen change it depending on what type of wood they are processing.
Believe me, even the handles play too a certain role assigned to them. The front, called the horn, acts as a guide, and is usually curved to provide a perfect grip. The rear handle is a stop, thanks to which it turns out to create the force necessary for work.
With the base (that is, the sole), which can be both metal and wood, everything is ambiguous.
The main criterion for this structural element is a perfectly flat surface.If this requirement is not met, then the manual plane will be difficult to use, and you can completely forget about the accuracy of planing. Taking into account all the nuances, the metal sole turns out to be much preferable - it is made according to a template, and therefore it always has the correct geometry.
But it so happens that when casting, the manufacturer also made mistakes, and then the advantages of the tool will be reduced to zero.
Moreover, metal as a material is highly susceptible to corrosive changes.
And if we talk about the types of wood planers, where the sole is also made of wood, then when it is deformed, it is possible to fix everything with your own hands and breathe new life into the plane. But wood is not a durable material, and it is subject to mechanical wear and tear, and also loses its properties with prolonged exposure to high temperatures and moisture. Despite the typical design, there are more than 10 varieties of planers, and each tool has certain functions when processing parts, so we suggest considering them in more detail.
Even though the variety of models is incredibly large, woodworking tools
can be divided into the following main types:
- For general purposes.
- For finishing.
- For shape cutting.
We suggest considering the representatives of each group separately.
The very first tool that a carpenter picks up when starting to cut a piece of wood is the scherhebel. We are talking about a massive planer in a metal body, which is needed for rough planing of surfaces that have not been previously processed.
The main task of the scherhebel is to give the blanks the desired shape, and the peculiarity of the planer can be called deep planing (up to 0.3 cm), so you will not be able to achieve an ideal surface with it. In such a plane, the knife has a rounded shape, and, as a rule, is set at an angle of 45 degrees to the sole. The blade makes it possible to remove chips in thick layers, and work not only along, but even across the grain of the wood.
When the workpiece has already been machined to the desired size, the carpenter needs to get rid of the deep jags that remain on the surface after the scherhebel.
Any of 3 device types can be used for this:
Further, the workpiece becomes even, smooth, but not yet perfect, and therefore professionals go to the next stage of work, preparing the next tool in advance.
Two different types of plane are used for clean planing depending on the type of product. The sander will carry out the final cleaning of the parts, and eliminate the defects that remain after the previous planing. The cutting tool looks like a double knife with a straight blade that is sharpened at 60 degrees and supplemented with a chipbreaker. Thanks to this structure, it will be convenient to smooth the surfaces of the end parts of the parts and around the knots with the help of a grinder.
Tsinubel is a rather interesting tool used for processing wooden elements, and in the future they are glued together.
Please note, that the last plane (tsinubel) has a serrated blade, which leaves neat grooves on the surface.
The result is a roughened surface that will provide excellent surface roughness and excellent material adhesion. the zinubel knife is located at an angle of 80 degrees, and therefore the surface becomes rough, but without burrs and seizures. There are different types of hand planers and single, end and double planers can be used for secondary machining of parts.
Double and single planers make it possible to eliminate the jags that are left from the scherhebel and level the surface, but after them you need to grind the workpiece.
And this is even a whole series of tools for woodworking, which noticeably helps to make life easier for the master and specializes in making parts from wood in the form complex geometric shapes.
The following manual types of planers are used for curved cuts:
- Zensubel - is required in order to plan perpendicular surfaces and quarters. The tool is equipped with a double blade and is made in the form of a spatula.
- Federgubel - has an unusual blade shape that helps to create projections on the end edges of the product.
- Falsebel - is used for cleaning quarters, equipped with ribbed sole and oblique + straight knives.
- Stacker - The structure consists of two blocks, which are connected by clamping screws, and are designed to form longitudinal grooves on the edge of the product.
- Kalevka - the tool is indispensable for curly cutting, and is used to create baguettes, cornices, door frames.
- Primer - is made in the form of a block with lateral mounting of the cutter, and is also designed to form grooves along the grain of wood.
- Gorbach - the block of the device has a curved shape, which makes it possible to process the surfaces of the outer and inner diameters of various products.
Professionals who are engaged in woodworking rarely use only one type of plane in their work, and in order to get an unusual product from a piece of wood, you will need to stock up on a full set of planers and more.
This type of carpentry tool is separate, and it combines all the previously listed varieties of hand tools. The electric planer is capable of curly, straight planing and is also ideal for large volumes of work. But the use of an electric tool in itself is not capable of bringing inner satisfaction, and the cost is sometimes too high.
For this reason, if you are talking about the construction of a country house or the processing of wood put on stream, an electric tool will be an indispensable assistant, but you will hardly be able to make an original little thing for yourself or give an unusual wooden product to your loved ones.
The warmth of wood products is possible only with manual processing.
Now you know what types of planers are and their purpose. But deciding which tool is better is not so difficult as it seems at first. Hand planing tools are fairly simple designs where the main elements are in plain sight. To choose a durable and quality planer, wood professionals recommend that you pay
attention to three main points:
There should be no visible damage, as well as chips, there should be a surface without violation of geometry, even. The only exception will be planers for figured cutting, where the step-type sole is initially already provided for by design features.
If we are talking about manufacturers, then when choosing hand planers, you should pay attention to products from Sigma and Stanley. Among electric tools, they deserve a place in the TOP of the best manufacturers Makita and Bosch.
By the way, it is not difficult to assemble a plane on wood even with your own hands, and therefore most craftsmen prefer not to mess with the models of the factory manufacture and immediately make a tool for themselves.
A tool knife and chipbreaker is worth buying from a hardware store, and in order for the cut quality to be at its best, you need tool steel, which is not so easy to find in the garage or household. In the construction of a tool, a knife is a consumable, and therefore its cost will be affordable for every person.
Note, that you should buy a blade first, and then, starting from its width, you can start making the plane itself.
The tool is cut from a solid bar, on which the markings should be applied in advance - oblique and vertical lines. Next, you should drill the center of the workpiece and form four holes in the corners.
Saw off two cheeks from a solid bar, and the workpiece itself should be cut at an angle into two uneven parts. After the cheek, you need to glue it to the base elements, and when the glue dries out, the sole should be glued to the bottom of the structure. Insert a metal rod into the hole of the cheeks, which will act as a support when clamping the blade with a wedge. So you get the simplest do-it-yourself plane. All that remains is to grind the surfaces, set the knife to the required angle and you can start working.
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