Foundations are the basis of buildings and structures. They create a buffer between the building and the ground. In this process, it takes on the entire load from the pressure of the building on the soil and the impact of geological processes from the earth's crust in the opposite direction. The even distribution of the action of these forces in all directions depends on the foundation.
For each building, its own type of foundation is calculated.
If there are several identical buildings in production, then the same type of basis is applied to them.
Example! When deciding on the construction of your home, you can choose a suitable series of structures with a typical foundation in a ready-made design form. In this case, savings on the purchase of services for creating a project at home.
Each view is divided into subtypes in accordance with the position relative to the ground level and the material of manufacture.
Along the depth of the device
Such a structure is used for small and light structures, fences.
Strong soils are suitable for such a base; loamy, dense layers of clay, sandy loam soils, soils with stone inclusions, sand. It is used for the construction of basement floors, the construction of heavy brick and concrete structures on it in several floors.
Foundations poured with concrete are first equipped with formwork.
They require the performance of waterproofing work to protect against moisture penetration through the foundation to the walls and premises of the building.
This type is used for light buildings and structures of medium weight, mainly one-story houses:
In an area with an uneven soil level, with a high degree of freezing, deeper than 5 meters. The bases fall below the freezing level. Only dense soil is suitable; such a foundation is not used on sandy and peaty soils.
There is a difference in the material of the pillars:
Columns are mounted in prepared wells with a diameter of 300 mm.
The depth corresponds to the length of the underground part of the column, not less than 2000 mm, with a margin of up to 200 mm for drainage material. Waterproofing of pillars is carried out immediately before installing the finished material or before pouring concrete, roofing material is laid along the walls of the pit. They are located around the entire perimeter of the building at a distance of 3 meters between themselves.
After the pillars are ready, a grillage is mounted on top of them. It is made from a wooden beam, a steel channel or reinforced concrete girders are used.
The main task of the grillage is to distribute the load of the structure on the columnar foundation.
The main difference between a simple columnar base and a mixed columnar basement is that instead of a grillage, a shallowly buried strip foundation is arranged along the pillars below its located.
This type of construction is used on soils with deep freezing and the presence of heaving properties. It is suitable for peat soil and sandstones with a close passage of groundwater.
Pile foundation is used on soft self-compacting soils, soils with layer-by-layer separation of different types of soil, for hard soils.
A grillage device is required for such supports. The differences come from the method of installing the piles and the material of their manufacture.
The pile foundation is equipped in most cases with a grillage from reinforced concrete beams, steel channels, from a wooden bar. It is possible that there is no grillage, and the crowns of the house are located directly on the pile heads.
The pile material is used depending on the design loads of the structure:
Before installation, they are treated with biochemical protection against decay and damage by insects.
Steel thick-walled pipes, round and shaped tubular products.
Piles are mounted in two ways:
Pointed full-bodied tips with adapted threads are welded to the ends.
Both methods of installation combine a single principle of action on the ground, they displace it with the effect of compaction. Thus, they provide themselves with reliable adhesion to soil layers. Hence, there are two types of interaction with the soil;
From a monolithic slab, the foundation is required on soft compressive soils or when the building is being built on granite rocks. It is set up as a continuous canvas under the entire building. A structure on such a basis will move along with the soil, without violating its integrity.
It is made by the method of continuous continuous pouring with concrete on a reinforced base with table veins over the entire area of the object.
This type of foundation is suitable for all types of soil.
It is the most reliable option, but its need is commensurate with financial costs.
The foundation or base of the building passes the most stringent control before starting its construction. All calculations on it are carried out last after creating the project of the building itself. The loads acting on it from all sides with a multiple reserve are weighed and calculated. The economic efficiency of the belt is calculated.
Sometimes it turns out that it is better to move the construction of a building to another place than to incur large costs in this area.
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