The construction industry is developing rapidly: the number of new materials and technologies is constantly growing. If earlier brick and concrete were mainly used for the construction of buildings, now the assortment of the masonry base includes several dozen items. Modern developers are increasingly inclined towards block construction. This method ensures the reliability of the frame and reduces the time spent on work. What blocks are better for building a house and how to choose them correctly?
Building block is intended for the construction of low-rise and multi-storey structures.
It is used for both residential and industrial premises.
The first block houses appeared in the middle of the XX century. Thanks to a convenient technological process, erection of a structure from blocks reduces time costs several times compared to other methods.
Installation of external and internal walls of a building on a construction site is quick and easy. The house is formed as if from cubes.
Due to the simplicity of this technology, more and more multi-storey block houses appear in Russian cities along with panel buildings. These are stable structures with good heat and sound insulation.
People without special education can master the laying technique. Most often, additional equipment is not required, so the blocks quickly gained popularity in private construction. Block technology is actively used in the construction of cottages, townhouses, country houses with a height of 1-2 floors.
A good ratio of price policy and quality provides a great demand for building blocks, therefore, in the modern market there are many types of this material from different manufacturers. There are several main classifications.
Large-sized blocks have such qualities as high strength, good thermal insulation characteristics. Small blocks are inferior in strength and thermal conductivity, but lighter.
They are more convenient to deliver to the construction site and easier to install.
Special standard molds for casting are involved in the manufacture of blocks finished products. With self-procurement of building materials, the maximum reduction in the cost of the final price of construction is possible, but the quality can fail.
The presence of voids inside building blocks makes them lighter and cheaper, but reduces the strength of the structure in comparison with solid blocks. They can be used to lay hidden communications. But it should be borne in mind that hollow blocks are characterized by increased thermal conductivity.
Special inorganic and organic are used for coloring blocks pigments as well as colored cements.
The main component of building blocks is concrete. Variations of different types of blocks lie in the differences in impurities, additional components and methods of mixing them. When combining the base with other substances, each type of block has individual properties.
The following types of building blocks are the most popular in the modern market :
Consider the main types of building blocks, their characteristics and differences.
Cast concrete elements are intended for laying foundations and installing load-bearing structures. Historically, it was this variety that became the first to be produced on production lines.
Due to the universal properties of concrete, buildings acquire special strength and durability.
The service life of structures made of this material reaches 100 years.
Advantages of concrete blocks:
However, it should be understood that this is a very heavy material, especially if the blocks are full-bodied. In most cases, additional lifting equipment will be required for installation.
For the installation of concrete blocks, cement is used, which provides savings on laying mortars. In addition, concrete is one of the inexpensive materials, so houses made of this material can be found both in megacities and in suburban areas.
Due to the popularity of concrete blocks, their size is strictly regulated , which allows you to plan all construction costs in advance with particular accuracy. For example, the cost of products with parameters 390x190x188 will be approximately 40-55 rubles.
/PC. Blocks of smaller dimensions 390x80 / 90x188 mm will cost 25-30 rubles.
To obtain this type of building material, an admixture from expanded clay is added to the concrete. It is a lightweight porous material of natural origin. Expanded clay is obtained by firing clay or shale.
It is not prone to rotting, mold and mildew formation, it is resistant to fire.
When mixed claydite with concrete, blocks with high strength and density are obtained. Improved technical parameters allow them to be used for the construction of multi-storey buildings without fear of possible deformation of the frame.
The main disadvantage of the design is low thermal insulation. The expanded clay concrete frame involves the installation of insulation from the street side in order to retain heat inside the room and extend the period of operation.
Expanded clay wall blocks are notable for their low cost due to the convenience and speed of production. Procurement of such blocks does not entail large material costs.
Among the most demanded dimensions of expanded clay concrete blocks, you can find 390x190x188 mm with a price of around 57 rubles. /PC. (corpulent) and 390x90x188 mm, with a varying price of 25-30 rubles.
Environmentally friendly and lightweight building materials. Suitable for low-rise construction, installation of main walls and internal partitions.
Blocks are produced by heat treatment and pressing of a mass of quartz sand, cement, lime and aluminum chips. This mixture is also called artificial stone.
The composition has increased fire resistance and good sound insulation. The house from such blocks turns out to be warm, and the walls "breathe" due to vapor permeability.
Due to its convenient dense structure, gas silicate is easy to install. Precise block edges speed up construction time and level the structure.
The advantages of gas silicate blocks include such characteristics as low weight.
The finished block has a honeycomb structure, which makes it lighter. The building frame does not exert strong pressure on the foundation, which saves on additional fortifications.
An important plus is a wide range of dimensions and shapes.Manufacturers regularly improve the masonry base in order to facilitate installation, creating clever designs with easy-to-install grooves and groove joints. Despite the indicated advantages of gas silicate products, the area of their application is reduced.
The honeycomb structure reduces compressibility and density. In order to avoid cracks and shrinkage of the lower part of the building, it is recommended to use blocks for buildings up to two stories high. When erecting taller buildings, to increase the strength of the structure, it is necessary to seal it with steel reinforcement. However, there will still be a risk of destruction of the lower floors under the weight of the upper ones.
Aerated concrete does not burn, but at high temperatures it begins to collapse , therefore, after a fire, the house may become uninhabitable.
Also, the disadvantages of gas silicate blocks include an increased level of water absorption and a rather low temperature resistance. They absorb moisture, which can break blocks during freezing conditions.
Aerated concrete materials 60x25x40 / mm are offered for 30-206 rubles. /PC. Products 60x30x10 / 20/25 mm cost about 30-75 rubles.
/PC. The largest blocks 60x37.5 / 40x25 mm can be bought at a cost in the range of 210-240 rubles. /PC.
Like gas silicate, aerated concrete blocks have a wide variety in size and density.
From them, you can completely build a structure. Blocks are selected in accordance with the assigned tasks. Modern manufacturers provide the ability to use them not only for walls and partitions, but also for lintels, window and door openings.
В the composition of aerated concrete blocks includes materials such as:
All ingredients are mixed in an autoclave and foamed due to the chemical reaction of aluminum with an alkaline solution.
The resulting block has a cellular structure and perfect geometrically smooth edges, which increases the percentage of heat during the construction of a house, ensures the maximum fit of the parts to be joined.
The main difference between aerated concrete blocks is that they can be easily cut with simple hand tools and get blocks of non-standard sizes. They also provide heat retention in the house due to the reduced thermal conductivity.
One of the main disadvantages of aerated concrete is increased water absorption. To protect the bearing walls of the building, deep processing with impregnations and primers will be required.
Another disadvantage is poor resistance to compression and bending. Aerated concrete blocks are fragile. They should be used for erection on a foundation that gives little shrinkage, otherwise the building will begin to crack after 2-3 years.
Foam concrete block has a cellular structure. It is produced by mixing cement and foaming agent.
In the production process, there is no thermal and force effect on this species, which gives foam concrete blocks a number of original properties.
Low cost and lightness can be distinguished from the operational advantages of such blocks the embodiment of individual architectural ideas, for example, the creation of a variety of curly arches.
Foam concrete blocks are often compared with aerated concrete in terms of frequency and scope of use. They are similar in many ways. But there are also several differences:
Open cells, formed during the evaporation of gases, easily accept and retain moisture for a long time, which adversely affects their functionality.
As for the cost, a foam concrete block with parameters 600x300x200 mm is possible buy for 95-120 rubles.
With variations in density, the price will differ. With an increase in volumes to 600x400x200 mm, you will have to pay 120-170 rubles. for 1 piece
Polystyrene concrete has recently appeared in the construction world, but some characteristics have already made it famous among developers. Weak thermal conductivity, good resistance to frost and temperature extremes, sound insulation, environmental friendliness - all these qualities confirm its uniqueness and reliability.
The composition of the polystyrene concrete block includes cement, polystyrene, sand.
The material is brought to readiness without thermal and chemical treatment, which allows you to get a good quality product even when you make it yourself. However, high quality can only be achieved by adding special fibers, which must be taken into account when choosing a manufacturing plant.
Polystyrene concrete blocks are divided into two types:
Regular blocks are intended for laying main and internal walls. The cost of building from this material is approximately 2 times cheaper compared to brick.
Lined products do not need subsequent facade finishing.
Block 600x300x250 mm is offered at a cost of 120-160 rubles. /PC. A smaller block 390x190x188 mm can be purchased at a price of 40-50 rubles. /PC.
In the construction industry, slag is a product obtained as a result of heat treatment of components by vibration pressing of concrete in special forms. Slag concrete blocks are an alloy without chemical additives, consisting of oxides and concrete.
The production of such products involves the use of crushed stone, cement, lime and slag sand ...
Coal ash, waste from the combustion of open-hearth furnaces, gravel, sawdust can be added to the composition. The result is a durable building material with a low cost.
Slag concrete blocks are made not only by handicraft, but also at factories. There is GOST 6133-99, according to the requirements of which reinforced cinder blocks are produced on an industrial scale. They stand out for their light weight compared to ordinary bricks, which prolongs the durability of buildings and reduces pressure on the foundation.
Table No. 1. Features of cinder blocks.
Cinder blocks differ in density and strength. Based on the purpose of their application, they are classified into several brands:
The weak points of such raw materials become noticeable primarily at the production stage:
Slag blocks for laying crossbars between rooms are available with parameters 390x90x190 mm, their price varies from 17-35 rubles. for 1 block. For universal buildings, products are used 390x240x190 mm. Their price is on average 50-80 rubles.
/PC. Buildings with increased load require the use of solid blocks with dimensions of 390x190x190 mm for 35-80 rubles. /PC.
Arbolite blocks are considered environmentally friendly material. They are 80% composed of wood chips and other organic components (crushed stems, waste of sunflower seeds, etc.
). Cement and various mineral additives are important ingredients. The resulting mixture is also called wood concrete.
Arbolite is used for private low-rise construction of buildings whose load-bearing walls are not exposed high compression load. This type of block is very popular in Holland.
In Russia, he has not yet acquired such recognition, but domestic production has already been launched.
For buildings of small dimensions, they can be used without reinforcement.
Of the negative qualities of wood concrete blocks, one can single out the obligatory facing to hide the unsightly appearance of the blocks.
Due to their ecological composition, arbolite blocks are among the most expensive ..
. A block 150x200x500 mm costs about 60 rubles. /PC. , and 300x200x500 mm - 120 rubles. /PC.
Straw-concrete blocks are a separate type of environmentally friendly blocks. This type of product belongs to natural and pure materials. They can only be used for the construction of the frame, because straw is considered a soft building material. The production of straw blocks has not yet become widespread in the construction market due to the skepticism of consumers.
This progressive building material is a modern alternative to bricks used in low-rise buildings.
The ceramic block is chemically treated to give it a high percentage of voids.
This type of blocks is subdivided into two categories:
The base does not include unnecessary impurities and additives. Such blocks are heavier and less insulating.
Ceramic blocks can be used in the construction of load-bearing walls of multi-storey buildings, partitions, complex design structures. The material itself does not need cladding. The properties of ceramics allow you to obtain maximum results without additional hydro and thermal insulation.
This significantly reduces construction costs and monetary costs.
Laying ceramic blocks and slabs requires the purchase of building glue. The cement solution will fill the cells in the blocks and significantly reduce their quality characteristics due to its liquid consistency. The application of a thick glue in a thin layer (about 2 cm) will facilitate successful adhesion of the material without filling the pores.
Do not forget about the need to bandage vertical seams with a horizontal fiberglass mesh every two rows, which will significantly reduce the threat to the strength of the building.
The size of the blocks varies from 25x120x65 to 510x95x219 mm, with a cost from 12 to 67 rubles. /PC.
The reliability of the building is due to the correctly selected material, its quantity and quality.
The main parameters of the blocks that determine their ease of use in the field of individual housing construction:
The calculation of the required number of blocks is usually based on these data.
Table No. 2. Comparative characteristics of various wall materials.
An important factor in choosing a material for construction is also the price characteristic. Many are guided by the original budget and make an estimate based on the capabilities of their wallet.
However, price shouldn't be the only factor. When choosing building blocks, it is important to take into account all the nuances.
Although experienced developers do not advise saving on their own convenience, it is also not worth overpaying for the wrong material. A wide selection of goods in hardware stores is due to the difference in their features and application. Therefore, the properties of the selected blocks must correspond to the specifically set goals.
For example, a one-story country house does not require good thermal insulation and wall strength, so cheap cinder blocks can be used for its construction, and when planning a project for a large family house for year-round living, you should take a closer look at aerated concrete or foam concrete. For lovers of classics, a house made of ceramic blocks is more suitable - a high-tech analogue of brick.
Thus, the choice of building products will be based on the following criteria :
Having correctly calculated all the nuances of construction and procurement, everyone can minimize economic losses in the implementation of their project.
The modern construction market offers a huge amount of building materials.
Even summing up all the positive and negative characteristics of each type of building blocks, it is impossible to single out the best ones from them. It is possible to determine the degree of convenience in the use of certain blocks only in a specific situation, selecting material based on the characteristics and purposes of the construction.
Posted By: Work Style |03, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |04, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020