Which is better? Types and Sizes- The advantages of factory products over homemade ones + Photo and Video

Which is better? Types and Sizes- The advantages of factory products over homemade ones + Photo and Video When building a country house, everyone wants to create comfortable living conditions. To equip a warm toilet, shower and plumbing, it is necessary to build a high-quality sewerage system. As a rule, there is no central network outside the city, and here the solution will be to create an autonomous sewage system, the main component of which is a storage neutralizing device for domestic wastewater from a home, called a septic tank.

Each sewerage structure has its own characteristics, and in order to choose which septic tank to choose, you need to know about the principle of its operation and decide on the appropriateness of using one or another type.


The main parameter when choosing a septic tank is material from which it is made.

On this basis septic tanks are divided into:

  • Which is better? Types and Sizes- The advantages of factory products over homemade ones + Photo and Video reinforced concrete well made of ruts, which is a ready-made reliable and corrosion-resistant structure. They are mounted using special equipment;
  • Monolithic concrete device. Produced by pouring the formwork and walls;
  • The device is made of brick and foam block. The bottom and sides are sealed with a clay-based coating material;

The steel tank is considered to be highly durable and inexpensive. But it can corrode, so additional waterproofing will be needed here; A polymer tank with light weight and relatively low cost.

But here it should be borne in mind that polymers can crack at low temperatures, and are also susceptible to the action of rodents;

The fiberglass septic tank is a strong and light material, not subject to the action of chemical funds, which also affects its durability.

Important: Regardless of which type of material you choose, the main thing is its strength and tightness to prevent contaminated water from entering the ground.

The following types of septic tanks are distinguished, based on functionality:

  1. Cumulative type. It is presented in a durable sealed container with one or two connecting sealed compartments.
  2. Sump.

    It has an additional system of additional soil purification, since here only seventy percent of the effluent is purified. This is a device with one or more sections. The processing of waste masses in it occurs by decomposition of solid and liquid masses with subsequent fermentation by means of anaerobic bacteria.

  3. A deep biological treatment plant is a multi-chamber treatment structure. The wastewater that gets inside decomposes in stages, passing through three types of treatment.

    The remaining organic residues from such containers can be thrown into the soil without harm.

The simplest of these types are storage tanks.Here, the principle of operation lies in the natural stratification of the accumulated waste masses, where solid masses settle to the bottom, and liquid ones rise to the top. However, this type should be chosen by those who are ready for regular pumping out and use of sewage services.

Natural separation of sediment from liquid occurs in sedimentation tanks.

In addition, they are equipped with infiltrates. These are devices for the disposal of clarified purified liquid into the ground. These devices are represented by tanks without a bottom, performing the task of an aeration platform. In them, the polluted liquid is passed through a soil filter, which is purified before being released into the environment.

Such a system is capable of fully purifying wastewater.

In devices of deep purification, several methods are used simultaneously, based on the stepwise decomposition of waste. First, the solid particles settle, then they undergo biological processing. Further, there is a chemical cleaning and filtration of the purified liquid. This structure can only be factory-made, which is relatively expensive, but it will quickly pay off, since it does not need regular pumping out using sewage equipment. Such a system cleans the waste liquid by 98 percent, which makes it absolutely safe to discharge into the ground.

Selection features

Which is better? Types and Sizes- The advantages of factory products over homemade ones + Photo and Video When choosing which one to buy, you need to consider not only the model range, but also correlate their features with a specific place of application. The price of any model depends on the type, material, size and number of tanks, purification technology, as well as the availability of additional elements. The septic tank, depending on the model, can be equipped with a compressor and drain pump, filter, automation.

Compressor, , as a rule, it is used in biological purification systems to supply air to waste masses, which serves as an oxidizer and is necessary for the existence of aerobic organisms ..


Drainage pump is needed for forced stimulation of the movement of waste masses in the septic tank or for ejection of the purified liquid when the septic tank is located below the discharge point.

Another important argument when choosing is how the septic tank will be placed in the pit. After all, the sites are different and large and small. So for example, if there are only three meters to the neighbor's fence, then a vertical septic tank can be the exit.

Under it, the pit digs deeper than usual, but it saves the width of the site very well. However, this method is not suitable for areas with a close location of groundwater.

Important: According to sanitary standards, the septic tank should be located no closer than 50 m from natural sources and no less than five meters from a residential building.

Even if you choose the best type of septic tank, it will not be effective if the performance of the device is incorrectly selected. The volume of the chambers and the performance of the septic tank will depend on the amount of water consumed.

The more connected plumbing fixtures and tenants in the household, the more efficient the model should be.

In the passport of the device, it must be indicated for how many people it is designed for. If the installation is homemade, then it will be necessary to make the appropriate calculations.

Important: The drains must be in the septic tank for at least three days, otherwise they will not have time to settle and the purification will not be complete. Therefore, it is extremely important to determine the volume of the sump sections so that they can contain the volume of waste water in three days.

The advantages of factory products over self-made ones

Made of scrap materials, such like tires, bricks, concrete rings, homemade containers will undoubtedly cost less. But their arrangement will take a lot of time and effort.

With your own hands it is possible to build structures both a simple storage device and a system of connected tanks for stepwise clarification of a liquid. By purchasing a ready-made version of a septic tank, you can rest assured that it meets all environmental and construction standards.

Choosing a septic tank in relation to the type of soil and the location of groundwater

When locating a sump on the site, the geological features of the area must be taken into account When purchasing a purification device that has an infiltration or an absorbing well, one should not forget that its bottom must be at least one meter above groundwater.

Important: Treated sewage can only be discharged into gravel, pebble soil or sands.

Which is better? Types and Sizes- The advantages of factory products over homemade ones + Photo and Video In addition to the infiltrator and the absorption tank, a filtration field is used in the system for post-treatment of waste masses. It is a drainage system with drainage pipes wrapped in filter gravel and geotextiles. If such a field is located at a level below the cleaning device, then a pump is used to move the liquid along the drains.

Note: If the soil is clayey, then there is no need for additional treatment, since clay, loam and sandy loam are not able to pass and absorb liquid.

It will not go into the soil, which will contribute to the flooding of the device and it will cease to function. The way out here will be the disposal of liquid through a pipe into a centralized sewage system or a sewer.

For loamy soils, it is better to choose an airtight container and a local cleaning station, which forcibly removes the clarified liquid. With a close passage of groundwater or their high rise during the flood period, the operation of an autonomous purification device will be problematic.For such areas, it is considered appropriate to use sealed storage tanks with subsequent waste disposal, as well as the use of a local cleaning system.

The best for such areas is the use of polymer containers with biological purification and subsequent discharge into a storage device. Pumping out of such a reservoir occurs much less frequently.

Septic tank size

The size of the tank is selected based on the average daily amount of wastewater from 1 resident. The basis is the daily consumption of the standard plumbing fixtures involved, which is approximately two hundred liters per person. According to the norms, the septic tank should hold a three-day norm of waste water from each family member.

For example, for four people living in the volume of the drive should have a volume of 2.4 cubic meters.

Note: With a constant visit to the household of guests, the capacity must be calculated with spare volumes by thirty percent.

How many sections a septic tank will have is determined based on the estimated cubic capacity according to the current SNiP standards. As mentioned earlier, factory models have guidelines for the number of people calculated and the performance of the device.

The optimal tank depth is 1.5-3m. Remember, when choosing a septic tank of a larger volume, that this can create some problems when it is pumped out with sewage equipment.


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