Silicate brick (timber, briquette, building material) is a demanded building material that has found its wide application in all areas. To build a wall or even a simple partition, you need to navigate in the characteristic features and indicators of height, length, width (W / L / H).
The material has found its application in the construction of low-rise buildings, suitable for the construction of fences. The material stands out for its resistance to cold, strength and low thermal conductivity.
Classic sizes are designated by the abbreviation 1NF according to the state standard.
It is considered the most bought and demanded, given the thickness of the dressing. This indicator is important for the construction of load-bearing walls. The size of the white brick standard , as well as its shape, is distinguished by such a comparison of the sides:
For one cubic meter of masonry, the consumption will be over 500 bars (standard size and type). Lumber with solid and hollow structure is also available on the market.
The mass of the first is a multiple of three and a half kg. , the second - two kilograms one hundred grams.
Bricks with one and a half size are used to ensure fast laying. Briquette 1,4NF is characterized by such dimensions L / W / H - 25 * 12 * 88 mm. A cubic meter of masonry - more than 370 briquettes of a given size.
Allocate corpulent, as well as a stone with voids. The weight of the first is five kg, and the second is four kg.
Double bar. When using 2.1NF, laying is carried out very quickly and efficiently.
This is a silicate-based stone with such dimensions L / W / H - 250 * 120 * 138 mm. According to the characteristics of the space occupied by the material, it is identical to 2 stones of the classical structure. One cubic meter of masonry contains about 250 double bars. Allocate corpulent, as well as a stone with voids. The first weighs approximately 7.
8 kg, and the second weighs more than 6.5 kg.
Bars of the following categories are less popular:
The size of the blocks does not always have to be accurate. Here, minimum L / W / H errors are allowed up to three millimeters. Sometimes inaccuracies in weight can vary up to 5 mm. This is due to the absorption of the silicate-based mixture during production. If during the construction of the structure, standard briquettes were used, then the property will be durable and stable.
The size of white facing brick must always be taken into account. This indicator is calculated before starting work. Advantages : resistance of the material to temperature drops, environmental friendliness (it is made from natural ingredients). You can add to all this an acceptable cost, in comparison with the ceramic counterpart. Despite this, the material cannot boast of a certain resistance to high temperatures.
He is not able to withstand a rate of more than 450 degrees.
The material does not stand out for its water resistance. It is not recommended to use it when laying bathing areas and other objects that will come into contact with moisture. But the material feels good with a jump in temperature. It is used to construct real estate in cities with frosty and windy cyclones.
A block based on silicate is the most popular and purchased material for construction. In order for everything to go sequentially during the construction of houses, companies manufacturing bars and building materials must adhere to the established dimensions. For all types of bars, as well as for materials, their own state standards have been developed. If all companies followed their scheme and dimensions, not paying attention to the classical norms, then at the stage of building houses, a turmoil would begin, which, undoubtedly, would lead to the destruction of load-bearing structures, partitions and houses.
In the CIS countries, a single rule was established for bars in the 27th year of the 20th century, which provided for the updated format (NF) of the bar, and all other dimensions are considered to be derived from the classics.
To design an object, at the stage of calculations, it is necessary to take into account the existing dimensions of building materials. The thickness of the supporting structures is a multiple of the dimensions of the bars, which are used at any of the stages of construction. Do not forget about the thickness of the binder emulsion ball. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the rules at any stage of the production of a white bar.
The dimensions of the white building brick are named:
Regardless of the method of work used, the "functional" area of the bar is the "bed".
Classic is a single bar (1NF), L / W / H. Its value is 25 * 12 * 6. 5 centimeters. This specificity is convenient for applying the material both across and along the masonry.
This will improve the bond of the bars, strengthen the structure. More than 500 units of material are used per cubic meter of single bar walls.
In addition to the above indicators, materials of the following dimensions are produced:
It is often called a stone, because such a name is spelled out in domestic standards.
Regarding a single bar: to create a one-and-a-half double shape, only its height changes (in other words, the area between the "spoon" and "poke" is lengthened). At the same time, the dimensions and the "bed" indicator do not change. One and a half bar L / W / H: 25 * 12 * 8. 8 cm.
It is produced with voids, and thanks to this, the bricklayer robot is lightened, because the weight of other materials will be almost 5 kg.
Double bar L / W / H H: 25 * 12 * 13. 8 cm. In terms of its volume, it is equal to a pair of single building materials, taking into account the thickness of the masonry ball. The weight of the bar is over seven kilograms.
More than 250 pieces are used per cubic meter. It is most often produced with voids, which reduces its weight to a kilogram.
The bar considered in the article is a building material that is actively used in the construction of load-bearing structures. It is used for the construction of cylindrical pillars and arched arches. The product stands out for its specific, doubled service life.
As a result, the supporting structures are classified as stable. For example, the life of a foundation based on bars is not limited by anything.
But the bar stands out from other analogs with its precise, established dimensions and organic external data.
White bar is made according to standard technology.
For this, a silicate base is used, which is supplemented with calcium oxide, natural rounded sand and mineral additives. The main advantage of the bar is environmental friendliness.
The block under consideration is distinguished by sound insulation, which makes it possible to use it for the construction of load-bearing structures. Silicate-based bars are in many ways superior to ceramic counterparts. This is explained by their positive characteristics:
But, like other materials for construction, a white bar is characterized by its disadvantages. For example, if we compare the material with a ceramic analogue, the first one stands out for the minimum level of resistance to increased thermometer readings and to water droplets.
Solid and hollow materials are used in the construction of houses. The latter are characterized by the maximum heat-insulating characteristics, concentrating heat energy. They are used in the construction of houses to reduce the force of impact on the base.
The percentage of voids often varies in different types of bars. A bar of the fourteenth class, with thirty percent of voids, is emitted by increased heat conductivity. Thanks to this, it is used for laying fireplaces.
The main advantage of the white bar is obvious.Even load-bearing structures of minimal thickness, laid out in one ball, stand out for the same characteristics of thermal and acoustic insulation.
They are often compared to thick ceramic materials that are laid out in several rows.
A silicate-based bar is produced in a rectangular shape in accordance with established, defined shapes and dimensions. The classic dimensions of the white silicate bar are regulated by the state standard. Even minimal deviations are prohibited at any of the production stages. This concerns the shape of the material itself.
The size and weight of the bars may vary depending on the type and its purpose.
According to the technical rules approved in the state order, there are 7 classes of bars. Hollow - it is characterized by lower weight and pricing when compared with dense material of the same class. Sizes of white one-and-a-half silicate bricks or thick-bodied bricks - 250 * 120 * 88 mm. Approximate weight - up to 5 kg.
Bars of 250 * 120 * 138 mm in size are in demand, and are widely used. They are called double and weigh an average of 8 kg.
White sand-lime brick
In the field of industrial construction of objects, it is customary to pay attention not to the volume of an individual bar, but to the total specific weight of a cubic meter of full-fledged laying. It even takes into account the bonding emulsion and mortar. Thanks to this, it is possible to calculate the total load on the structure base and make important adjustments at any stage of the construction.
It is important to pay attention to the type of bar used, its dimensions, the presence of voids and the thickness of the adhesive emulsion. The specific gravity of a cubic meter ranges from 670 - 2100 kilograms.
Many characteristics of a silicate block must be considered during construction. The main component is the ratio of the mass of the bar to the volume it occupies. In order not to pay attention to the details (they can be found separately in the section " white brick sizes of gost "), the bars are divided into dense - over 1500 kg / cubic meter and with the presence of pores, less than 1500 kg / cubic meter.
According to the density criteria, the bars are divided into 6 types, which are prescribed by the Latin M and the digital indicator from 70 to 300.
The strength limit is determined at the stage of breaking and pulling the bars. If a bar is saturated with water, its strength will decrease significantly. The next stage is resistance to negative indicators of the thermometer F - the average cycle of freezing and thawing of the bars. After the set number of phases, the material will become unusable.
For internal walls and arches, partitions, the number is in the boundary of 15 phases, for front walls, columns and other products that are in constant contact with atmospheric cycles - one hundred phases. With the addition of modernized chemical components, the number of F phases can be doubled several times, which affects the ecology of the bar.
The bar is able to keep warm. This indicator is influenced by its density and type of production; the average thermal conductivity of a hollow bar is 0.56-0.
9 W / mS. A solid bar stands out with more significant indicators - 0.68-0.90 W / mS. The absorption of droplets of moisture and water at the bar is quite high, according to state standards it should not be more than six percent, but in fact this figure is twice as much.
Depends on the presence of pores.
By purpose, a white block is divided into two types. To them there is a bar for facing and a private. The latter is most often produced in white, the shade of the facing beam is chosen by the customer, depending on personal preferences. An ordinary type of timber is distinguished by a rough surface - it greatly simplifies the further application of glue and various adhesive emulsions.
By their structure, the bars are divided into solid and hollow. They, accordingly, differ in size and the permissible percentage of voids. Also, the division is carried out based on the physical characteristics of the bars (resistance to subzero temperatures, density and heat conductivity).
Silicate-based bar, at the expense of its affordable cost, is in particular demand among construction organizations and entrepreneurs. Material price varies.
It all depends on production technologies, shades, size and type, country and region of production of the bars. The cost between full-bodied and hollow options varies in the border 2-7 rubles per piece .
The price of a full-bodied briquette M-100 from 5 rubles / piece , M-250 - from 13 rubles / piece . The price of a facing briquette starts from 10 rubles. per piece .
It is worth considering the option that during bulk purchases, the price will always be many times more affordable, even with minimal supplies. Also, do not forget about promotions and discounts for regular customers, which are relevant for large construction corporations.
The quality of all building materials is influenced by the norms prescribed in the state standard and the rules that are taken into account by the manufacturer. "Yaroslavl Silicate Brick Plant" - is the leading manufacturer in the country, which began its work in the 31st year of the last century. Customers buy over one hundred million units of goods per year.
The range is supplemented with all types of bars, the quality is confirmed by international standards and is constantly monitored by the laboratory at the factory.
Another equally large manufacturer is Bor silicate plant. The plant supplies goods to all regions of the country and even abroad. Imported equipment and qualified specialists allow us to produce high-quality and affordable goods.
Sizes of silicate briquette, its optimal thermal insulation performance and minimum weight have found their wide application at any stage of the construction of multi-storey or one-storey buildings.
This is justified by a decrease in the load indicators on the base. If the supporting structure of the property is equipped with a ventilated façade, it will be replaced with a solid analogue.
Hollow pore bars are widely used to decorate fences in summer cottages and around industrial facilities. It is appropriate to use such a briquette to fill the void for the construction of monolithic real estate.
Type M hundred is used for garage and economic cooperatives and buildings.
M one hundred and fifty is used for single-storey residential buildings, M two hundred and fifty - for the construction of multi-storey buildings. During transportation of the product to the site, it is important to avoid deformations or chips. For this, special pallets are used, the dressing is carried out with safety cables.
Features of masonry of load-bearing structures silicate briquettes completely repeats similar technological rules for shell rock, gas blocks. The briquette is mounted in a bandage with the previous ball.
This is done to prevent the joints from overlapping. Once the first ball has been laid, it is important to lay the corners using a stepped technique.
From two corners, a building thread is pulled, along which subsequent blocks are laid. They form the rows of the future house. The building level checks all formed rows so that they correspond to the horizon.
Don't forget about joining. The latter is carried out with a seam sealant and gives the desired aesthetic appearance.
Sheathing of load-bearing structures is carried out in accordance with certain rules and methods. The first rule is a total tape of briquettes 1⁄2 stone thick.
The second rule is that the corners of the supporting structure should be laid out from solid briquettes along the entire length (called protrusions, as well as posts). To ensure a tighter binding of the masonry to the supporting structure, glass mesh or wire loops are used. You can also snap using anchor fasteners. This is done every 5 rows.
Of the large assortment of building materials, only wood or stones compete with briquettes.
The first records of the use of briquettes can be found in many ancient scriptures in Asia. Archaeologists also found briquettes during excavations in the territory of ancient Mesopotamia and China. Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine builders used this material extensively. So, according to the very minimum estimates, its age exceeds the figure of 10 thousand years.
The first attempts to establish a standard size for briquettes date back to ancient times.
In Russia, this step was taken by the last Tsar of All Russia and the first Emperor of All Russia. Under him, the briquette, the dimensions of which were 280 * 140 * 70 mm, became the most relevant. At that time, the process was controlled by special measures that each master had. This managed to achieve, even if minimal, unification.
In the production of briquettes, a stamp was put down as evidence of full compliance with the established standards.
This policy drew a flurry of criticism from the craftsmen, because the latter were eager to retail, trying to reduce the established sizes to save materials.
The tendencies for the installation of the specified sizes of briquettes were traced up to the beginning of the 20th century, not only in the CIS countries, but also in all European countries. Manufacturers were eager to follow the established norms, because the contradictions not only made it difficult to install the minimum dimensions, but also stood out overweight, which negatively affected the sustainability of buildings. At the same time, European countries began to use briquettes of different sizes, which gave the structures a certain charm and originality. This can explain the diverse range of materials presented below.
The most popular in the last century and today are briquettes, the dimensions of which are described in centimeters based on the international measuring system:
Minimal ( 15 * 7 * 35);
Monastic hut (28 * 13 * 8);
Saint Martin (28 * 13 * 7);
Small monastery hut (28 . 5 * 13. 5 * 8. 5);
"Arrow" (18 * 8. 5 * 5) ;
"Brussel" (20 * 9.
5 * 6);
"Virginia" (21 * 10 * 7);
"Rome" (22 * 10 . 5 * 4);
"Fiftieth module" (19 * 9 * 5);
"Decorations of Rome" (24 * 10 * 4).
Goldstein eight inches (19 * 9 * 4);
Eight inches (19 . 5 * 9. 2 * 5);
OF (22 * 10.
5 * 5. 2);
WF (21 * 10 * 5);
VF thickened (21 * 10 * 6.5);
Rome (2.4 * 11. 5 * 4);
Monastic hut (33 * 25 * 6.
Classical form (DNF) (22.8 * 10.8 * 5.5);
Monastic hut (29 * 14 * 9).
EF (24 * 10 * 7. 1);
Thin briquette (DF) (24 * 11. 5 * 5.2);
2 DF (24 * 11. 5 * 11.
3 DF (24 * 17. 5 * 11. 3);
4 DF (24 * 11. 5 * 23. 8);
8 DF (24 * 24 * 23.
10 DF (24 * 30 * 23.8).
Classic (25 * 12 * 6.2).
One and a half (25 * 12 * 8.
Single briquette (25 * 12 * 6.5);
Double (25 * 12 * 13.8).
Standard (23 * 11 * 6.5).
Classics (25 * 12 * 6. 2).
"Marienburg" (32 * 15 * 9).
Babylon (31 * 18 * 7).
Byzantium (29 * 11.
5 * 3. 1).
Domestic briquettes acquired their modern look only in the 27th year of the last century. A little later, the dimensions of a single ceramic briquette and its value in one and a half and double form appear in the regulatory documents. Finally, this information is approved with the introduction of conventional units of measurement of structural parts and building materials, which, according to the latest editions of the state standard, began to be called a module.
An interesting fact remains that the word "one and a half" cannot be confirmed by mathematical calculations, because its height, in comparison with a single one, is 1.3 cm more. This name was used most often among builders and since then, it has begun to be included in state rules and regulations. This term is incriminated with the size of a silicate briquette, the size of which is 25 * 12 * 8. 8 cm.
Building material began to be made from a combination of sand and lime only in the 20th century, after a significant modernization of industrial production in the field of building materials. Then they began to use the method of semi-dry pressing and burning in an autoclave. The dimensions, cost and strength indicators did not cause any complaints from users, the materials became resistant to moisture and increased temperature.
Today, any non-observance of the established standards in matters of laying briquettes is allowed only when decorating premises or supporting structures. The parameters of briquettes for facing are controlled with the utmost rigor.
The boundary deviation can vary from 3-4 mm, and within 2 mm in thickness. Therefore, the dimensions of the white briquette are strictly limited and comply with the norms of interstate rules.
There are a number of restrictions regarding the use of briquettes. The reduced resistance to moisture prohibits their use in homes that are exposed to increased moisture (base, basement rooms, water shafts) and maximum temperatures (capsules for the stove, chimney).
The mass fully depends on the size of the product H / W / L.
The indicator is also influenced by the raw material used for the workpiece, density, the presence of voids and pores. According to the results of industrial tests, it was found that the heaviest building materials are monolithic parts that do not contain voids. Such materials are often used in the construction of foundations and retaining walls.
Products with voids are produced for the construction of secondary objects that do not provide for maximum load.Air voids occupy 20-50 percent of the total volume of the material.
Accordingly, such materials have found widespread use as an additional layer that doubles the heat retention and sound insulation performance.
The mass of materials for construction varies depending on the size of the briquettes
|Density class||Category||Weight, kg|
|One and a half||4. 2-5|
|Double|| 5. |
|One and a half||3. 7|
|With facing voids||Double||5-5. 8|
|One and a half||3. 7-4. 2|
Based on the information provided on the dimensions of masonry briquettes, we can conclude that hollow materials have the maximum weight parameters, but with one and a half or double standards.
What is the size of white silicate brick? This indicator has been established by the whole construction evolution.
The history of the development of briquettes and their sizes once again confirm that further transformations in the use of these materials will take place in the near future. After all, all construction processes are constantly being modernized and evolved.
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