Wood and metal file and little-known facts about it

Wood and metal file and little-known facts about it Locksmith's tool file : description, features and interesting facts about it

Very often, for one or another craft made of wood, a blank is needed, which will have specific, precisely specified dimensions. So, the material is ready, cut, but you still need to remove some wood.

Sawing a workpiece will be irrational, but using a grinder or a plane will not work due to the complexity of the shape. This is where one of the most famous carpentry tools will come to the rescue - a file for wood.

With its help, it is possible to remove a thin layer of wood blanks, make a flat surface, and also adjust to the desired size and shape.

What is it and why is it needed

Structurally, an ordinary file is a simple tool, because it is a plate of steel, which has been cut ... The latter can be of different depths and profiles, and this will determine the scope of the tool. In the process of carrying out work, it should be held by the handle, which is made of wood or even of different composite materials.

But the tool that is required for roughing (that is, rough work) may have a pair of handles and even according to external data resemble a plane familiar to everyone. The file is needed in order to remove the thin top layer of wood, and thereby level the surface of the workpiece, as well as give it the desired shape. In general, all this is done by a grinding machine, but it will be very problematic to do such a delicate job with it.

Types of files

The industry will assume different types of such tools, most of them for universal purposes, and will be used with equal success for fine processing of metal and wood.

According to the type of cutting part, the following tools can be distinguished:

  • Wood and metal file and little-known facts about it Single cut.

  • Double type cross cut.
  • For wood with arched cut.
  • With rasp type cut.
  • Stamped file.

Separately, it is worth highlighting the tool, which is intended for delicate work with small parts.

A wood file is the same file, but it is smaller, which makes it indispensable for making small crafts from wood and other soft materials. By the way, for the same purposes, varieties of files are also used, namely riffles.

The working part of such tools is curved, and this greatly facilitates the manufacture of small-sized parts with complex shapes. All files, regardless of their purpose, will be classified by section on the working surface,

and more popular are the following tools:

  • Rectangular (flat) ..


  • Triangular.
  • Round and square.
  • Rhombic.
  • Semicircular.

The size, shape of the tools, type of cut and depth will be selected according to the type of work being done. The larger the notch and the larger its pitch, the rougher the processing will be. From this we conclude that a home craftsman should have far from one file, but a large set of such items with different characteristics.

Features and scope of the rasp

Such a locksmith tool, like a file, has many varieties. In carpentry, a separate type of file is often used, which is called a wood rasp.

At first, both instruments are very similar to each other, but there are actually big differences between them. The problem is that the cut of the rasp is made in the form of different burrs with a unique shape. Thanks to this configuration, the tool will not clog and you will be able to machine a large area of ​​work as soon as possible.

It is worth noting that the rasp will be indispensable in those conditions when the use of other methods for surface treatment (with a plane or saw) is inappropriate.

For example, you need to remove a few millimeters from the end surface of a small plank.

The saw with a high degree of probability will spoil the workpiece, it is impossible to use a plane due to the small length of the board, and it takes a long time to work with a simple file, especially since it will constantly be clogged with sawdust.

A set for a home workshop

A home craftsman who is engaged in or just plans to start making wooden products cannot do without rasps. While the final sanding of parts can be done with sanding paper instead of a file, a rasp is required for roughing. Naturally, such a tool should not be in one copy, and even novice craftsmen should buy several of the most necessary (popular) varieties.

Good advice! When choosing a rasp for homework, you should pay attention to the material of the work surface, the profile, the workmanship of the handle, as well as the number of the notch.

In order to make a really high-quality rasp, carbon tool steel with U7, U8 and UTA grades is usually used. These types are highly durable, and are also able to keep sharpening for a long time. One of the most important characteristics is the cut grade, and there are first and second grade. They differ from each other in the number of teeth, as well as the distance between them.

It is easy to guess that the greater the distance between the teeth, the less often the tool will clog, but then the surface will be rougher.

When working with a rasp, hold it by the handle, which means that it must be reliable and comfortable. The easiest way to appreciate the convenience is when you pick up the instrument. Reliability is much more difficult to assess. Here a lot will depend on the manufacturer, as well as the responsibility.It can only be noted that a high-quality tool should have a two-component rubberized or wooden handle.

There should be no chips or cracks on it.

Purpose of the types of rasps

Probably the first thing to pay attention to when choosing a rasp is the profile of the working part. Specifically, the list of works that can be performed with its help will depend on such a characteristic. At the same time, among the incredible variety of locksmith files, only flat, round, triangular and semicircular tools remain popular.


Wood and metal file and little-known facts about it This tool is quite convenient handle flat surfaces, as well as various recesses with a large radius of curvature.

In addition, with its help you can form the inside of the grooves, as well as cuts inside the wood.


This object has three planes at once, which determined its scope. It can flatten small flat-type parts and also develop inner surfaces in a polygonal hole. In addition, he uses it to make curly cuts in order to create spike joints.


The rasp, whose working surface is semicircular, is distinguished by its versatility, because one side of it plays the role of a flat tool, and the other as round rasp.

It can be used with equal success to level flat and curved cuts.


But the round rasp is used to develop holes in the end surfaces of curved cuts or in wood. It also helps smooth the ends of wood-based boards and slabs.

Features of using the tool

Performing work with a file does not require special skills and knowledge, and, nevertheless, do not forget about attentiveness and caution. Wrong movement can ruin the workpiece, and if you gape, you can even get hurt.

To work safely and comfortably, the workpiece should be clamped in a vice or even fixed with several clamps on the workbench.

With your right hand, grip the file or rasp by the handle, and place your left on the edge of the work surface. Next, perform reciprocating movements - from yourself and towards yourself. In this case, the left hand should press a little on the tool, and an excellent result will be obtained by moving not perpendicular to the wood fibers, but slightly at an angle.

Little-known and unusual facts about the file

Consider what you have not heard of before:

  1. Few people know, but in order for the file to clog up with sawdust as little as possible when working with wood, its working surface should be pre-treated with simple chalk.

    After such a procedure, it will be much easier to clean the file of wood, and the efficiency of the tool will not be affected.

  2. As already mentioned, files are the "widest" tools. The type of tool will be determined by the section, because a certain section will only work for a certain material. Standard files are suitable for working with non-ferrous metals, cross files for working with ferrous metal, milling files for wood. Rasps are suitable for rubber, wood and leather.

  3. To keep the metal file as sharp as before, use different acid solutions more often. The instrument should be immersed for 1/2 or 1 hour in a jar of acid, and, as a rule, sulfuric or acetic acid is used for this purpose (but a weak solution). After that, rinse the file in caustic soda and dry - the serifs will be as good as new.
  4. For some reason, some people think that a file is a slang for a file, but this is not so. It is a German word for "needle file" and is used for delicate work.

    The riffle is a specific file that will differ from most similar tools in that it has an unusual working part. In most cases, it is very curved, and such a tool is used for working with curved surfaces.

  5. You can make a file not only from metal. You may not know, but in the old days, files were made from fish skin. The best tools come from shark skin.

    At the moment, this production technology is practically not used, although a small number of Pacific peoples still use this method.

The quality of work should be constantly monitored, and for this you should from time to time sweep the chips with a brush with long fibers. Closer to the end of the work, the pressure on the tool can be reduced, and at the same time do not try to get an ideal surface from the very first minutes, since, most likely, in order to remove all the roughness, you will additionally need to work with sandpaper.

The skill of using a file is useful in all household chores. This is not difficult at all to learn, just a little practice is enough.

Diligence and diligence will help you master such a simple tool, which will definitely come in handy in the future. It is also important to note that such tools should be selected that will be of high quality, since otherwise a simple job can turn into real torture.