The main idea of the "Wright" style in architecture is the maximum harmony with nature. Such buildings organically fit into the surrounding landscape, become a natural complement to the landscape and combine simplicity, comfort and functionality. This is an ideal option for suburban construction, and therefore, Wright-style houses are becoming more popular every year.
Wright Style Houses
Wright Style House Project
The style of organic architecture was created in the early 20th century by the American innovator architect Frank Lloyd Wright. He was an opponent of complex and cumbersome structures, monotony of buildings, and therefore actively used the natural landscape in his projects.
The flat steppes of America inspired him to create squat houses that seemed to try to merge with the horizon, and this trend became known as prairie style.
Frank Lloyd Wright lived a long life, managed to play the role of both a successful architect in the 19th century and an architectural classic in the 20th century
During his life, Wright created over a thousand projects, among which were not only residential buildings, but also churches, schools, museums, office buildings and skyscrapers. He used various styles and their elements, but the main emphasis was, of course, on organic architecture. Over time, the popularity of "prairie houses" has grown markedly, and the style direction began to be called after its creator.
Usonian House in the USA by Frank Lloyd Wright
Wright mansions and cottages are very diverse, but they all share common characteristics:
Houses look very laconic and cozy, no pretentious details, complicated elements, everything is simple and functional.
House of Levin (Robert and Rae Levin), pcs. Michigan, USA
Rosenbaum House, PA Alabama, USA
Kentuck Knob House, PA Pennsylvania, USA
Initially, the layout of such houses was T-shaped or in the form of a cross: rectangular elements intersected at right angles, forming a non-standard, but very comfortable and reliable design.
Modern projects are predominantly rectangular and L-shaped, which saves building space.
The houses are not high, even if there is a second and third floor, and the impression of earthiness is further enhanced by the horizontal orientation of the buildings. Numerous rectangular projections - bay windows, multi-level annexes, square columns - give the buildings an angularity. The basement and high foundation are absent, but the house itself is most often erected on a hill.The roofs are 3 and 4 pitched, with a slight slope, sometimes almost flat.
A characteristic feature of the roof structure is the very wide overhangs, borrowed from oriental architecture.
Lloyd Wright-style country house
Despite the abundance of squat objects and horizontal lines, inside such buildings it is quite spacious
Brick, ceramic blocks, natural stone are widely used for the construction of walls. For floors - timber and concrete. But the frame structures for the Wright style are not typical, as are the completely wooden houses. Eclecticism is welcomed in the decoration: a combination of concrete and glass with natural wood and rough-cut stone.
There are many options for combining stone and smoothly plastered walls.
Construction and finishing materials
The most common type of exterior decoration is facing the facade with decorative brick or torn stone, broken down into sections horizontal strips of concrete. Concrete is also used to frame the borders of ledges, parapets and awnings, sometimes windows. The tree is used for filing eaves, finishing terraces and outbuildings, erecting partitions. As a roofing material, the most popular is natural and soft tiles, less often - corrugated board.
Windows in such houses they are adjacent to the roof itself, they can be located along the perimeter of the building with a continuous tape. As a rule, they have a square or rectangular shape, a small number of jumpers, and there are no shutters. Window openings are always framed with concrete strips or thick boards. Expensive projects involve panoramic windows on both sides of the main entrance.
Panoramic windows in Wright's houses
Layout of houses necessarily includes a wide open terrace, and sometimes more than one.
The interiors are also quite spacious, despite the low ceilings, and the smooth transition from one room to another creates a sense of continuous space. The doorways are wide, of a strict rectangular shape. Arched structures are uncommon for this style.
Wright's houses: color palette
facades and interiors
The color scheme of Wright-style houses includes predominantly neutral and warm natural colors: beige, sand, all shades of gray and brown. White is used infrequently and is always combined with other shades.
The roof should be darker than the walls, and the overhangs should be light (usually white or beige). Elements for the design of corners and openings are matched to the color of the roof.
House "Kenneth Laurent"
Independent It is very difficult to design and build a Wright-style building if you do not have an architectural background. But with the right finishes, you can transform standard housing and give it a similarity to prairie houses. To make the facade appear squat, at the level of the window openings around the perimeter of the house, you need to mount a wide cornice made of concrete or polyurethane.
The same cornice must be installed along the upper edge of the walls.
A tile like a wild stone or torn brick is suitable for cladding - this finish looks great, and do it yourself not difficult.
Torn brick cladding tiles
Exterior walls should be properly prepared before finishing. Cladding requires a strong, reliable base with a flat surface, without vertical deviations. Having cleared the walls from dirt and dust, they carefully examine them for defects: cracks, chips, fungal lesions, peeling of the old coating.
Everything that does not hold tightly, crumbles, should be removed to a solid base, otherwise a high-quality finish will not work. The areas affected by the fungus also need to be cleaned with a scraper, and then treated with any product containing chlorine.
Treat the walls with an antifungal agent
Next, knead the cement mortar (1 part cop, 3 parts sand), and close up all deep chips , notches, cracks.
Seal cracks and dents
Protrusions larger than 15 mm are knocked down with a chisel and hammer.
Beat off the protrusions
After that, a level or even long strip is applied to the wall plane in several places to determine the degree of curvature of the surface.
If there are a lot of irregularities and differences in height are more than 15-20 mm, leveling with plaster should be performed along the beacons.
Checking the evenness of the wall using the rule
Before leveling, the walls are primed and allowed to dry well.
Primer before plaster
Deep penetration primer
For plastering, you can use normal cement-sand mortar or a commercially available cement-based mixture. It is a little more expensive, but much better in quality: it does not shrink, has increased resistance to moisture, dries quickly. A plaster mixture is applied in 2-3 layers, each of which is rubbed and sanded after drying.
At the end, the walls are again covered with a primer.
Pulling the plaster along the beacons
When building prairie houses, the horizontal demarcation of the facade is carried out with concrete strips in the process of laying the walls.In our case, you can use wide front cornices made of polyurethane or fiber-reinforced concrete, which look no worse. You can buy them at any hardware store.
In order for the cornices to match the style of decoration, you should choose products of a simple rectangular shape, with the least pronounced relief. The optimum height of the eaves is 140-150 mm.
Facade decor with dense expanded polystyrene filling, reinforced with fiberglass mesh
To install polyurethane cornices you will need:
If fiber-reinforced concrete curtain rods are selected for finishing, you will additionally need dowel-nails for fastening, as well as drills and a drill.
Determine the height of the eaves on the facade. If the house is two-story, the cornice is attached between the floors and along the upper edge of the facade. In one-story houses, the demarcation line can run at the level of the lower or upper edge of the window opening, or in the center of the window. If the walls are high, you can mount two cornice belts.
At the selected height, beat off a horizontal line around the perimeter of the house. Along the marking line, the walls are primed to the height of the cornice. It is advisable to take the soil with a quartz filler.
Quartz-filled acrylic primer
Step 3. Prepare the glue: pour dry components into a container with water and stir until homogeneous with a mixer.
Stir the glue thoroughly until smooth
Take a polyurethane cornice, cover the back with glue and form grooves with a notched trowel. The wall is also covered with a uniform layer of mortar, after which the cornice is applied to the surface. Check the location with a level, pressed against the base along the entire length of the product. Excess glue around the edges is carefully removed with a narrow spatula.
Take the next element, glue the back side and the end of the cornice with glue, apply it to the wall, tightly joining the previous one. The rest of the elements are fixed in the same way, constantly controlling the horizontal. When finishing corner joints, the ends of two adjacent cornices are cut at an angle of 45 degrees.
Step 5. When the glue is dry, sand the surface of the cornice with fine sandpaper, sweep the dust, seal the seams with a sealant.
At the end, the finish is primed and painted white.
Fiber-reinforced concrete curtain rods are much heavier than polyurethane ones, so glue alone is not enough. In this case, from the back of the product, in its upper part, holes are carefully drilled for fasteners, going deeper by half the thickness of the cornice. The distance between the holes is 40-50 cm, the outer holes are located 10-15 mm from the ends.The same holes are drilled in the wall, exactly observing the specified distance.
Dowel-nails are inserted into the holes in the wall, then glue solution is applied on the wall and on the cornice, the product is applied to the surface so that the fasteners exactly enter the holes. Having aligned the horizontal, the cornice is pressed against the wall and the excess mortar is removed with a spatula. Finishing is done as described above.
Installation instructions for a polyurethane cornice
Installation of a cornice with a hook
Installation of the cornice on the metal structure
For cladding an artificial stone is ideal, which in appearance practically does not differ from natural, but has less weight and is easier to install. You can choose two types of stone, differing in texture and color, then the facing will look even more impressive.
Artificial stone for facing facades
In the process of work you will need:
Grout for stone in buckets
Angle grinders (grinders)
Before you start to work, experts recommend laying stones from 2-3 packs on the ground to see how the finish will look on the wall. This will help determine the optimal width of the joints between the elements, choose the pattern of the masonry.
How to properly lay a decorative stone
Advice. Before installation, you need to inspect the back side of the stones: if it is glossy or has traces of cement laitance, additional processing with a metal brush is required.
Step 1. Prepare the glue: pour the dry component into a container with water and stir with a mixer until smooth. Be sure to adhere to the proportions indicated by the manufacturer, otherwise the quality of the masonry may decrease.
Step 2. Stones of the first row are laid face side down and moisten the back side with water.
While the water is absorbing, the adhesive solution is applied with a spatula to the wall, starting from the bottom of the corner. The layer should be even and not too thick. A notched spatula is carried over the applied layer, forming a relief.
Step 3. The mortar is also applied to the back of the stone and smoothed with a spatula with a layer of about 6 mm thick.
They are pressed against the wall, leveled and pressed into the solution with zigzag movements. Additionally, the element can be trimmed with a rubber hammer.
A solution is applied to the back of the stone
Laying the stone
Step 4. Fasten the next fragment, leaving a seam of the required width between the stones.If adhesive gets on the front surface, gently wipe it off with a damp sponge.
Laying the decorative stone
Continue laying the stone until you have completed installation of the entire stone, not forgetting to remove the excess mortar between the tiles
During installation, it is necessary to check the horizontal line of the row by applying a level to the upper edge of the stones. For the convenience of laying, special corner elements are attached to the corners.
Step 5. Having finished laying the first row, proceed to the second. To prevent the stones from slipping and to ensure the evenness of the seams, wooden wedges of the appropriate thickness are inserted between the lower and upper stones.
The vertical seams should not coincide, so you need to start the row not with a whole stone, but with a half. The material is easy to process, and it is not difficult to cut it with a grinder.
Laying the stone from bottom to top will eliminate the likelihood of its sliding
Step 6. All subsequent rows are laid exactly like this same, observing the dressing of the seams and controlling the level of the horizontal facing. During installation, try to evenly alternate stones in size and color, so the finish will look more aesthetically pleasing.
Step 7. After 3-5 days, you can start processing the seams. To do this, knead the grouting solution, collect it in a special bag and gently squeeze the mixture into the cavity of the joints between the stones. The joints should be filled to the same depth, but not less than 5 mm from the base.
Approximately half an hour after application, when the grout begins to set, it is smoothed with a jointing or narrow trowel. Excess mixture is carefully removed from the cladding with the same spatula or brush.
Sewing of masonry seams
After complete drying of the solution, the facing is treated with a water repellent. You can apply the composition with a brush, but it is more convenient to use a spray, especially if the facade area is large enough. Before treating the surface with a water repellent, you should carefully study the instructions for its use.
Applying water repellent spray
House in California designed by Frank Lloyd Wright Jr.
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